Some keywords may have different meanings. Below you will find details of how we have interpreted some of the keywords that are used on the site.

Achievement gap:
Any achievement gap between groups of pupils. Pupils at risk of falling short of their potential.

At-risk pupils:
Pupils who have a high chance of dropping out of education or developing problems or difficulties.

Research looking at how the success of pupils and schools is measured.

Studies that examine or attempt to improve behaviour.

Studies that analyse the nature of bullying in school environments.

Childhood development:
The psychological and emotional development of children, normally at younger ages.

Classroom management:
Activities to improve behaviour in the classroom.

Cognitive development:
Child development with priority given to mental information processing, language learning and the ability to think and understand.

Studies that consider the cost-effectiveness of an intervention.

Studies looking at the impact of continuing professional development (CPD).

Disadvantaged children:
Children who are disadvantaged in some way often, but not always, financial. This keyword includes pupils who were eligible for free school meals in the last 6 years and therefore eligible for the pupil premium.

English as an Additional Language:
Articles that give particular attention to pupils who learn English as, at minimum, a second language.

Ethnic minorities:
Studies that look at the development within particular ethnic groups.

Articles that examine differential effects between the sexes, eg, single-sex schools.

Pupil health and physical well-being.

Higher education:
Studies that focus either entirely or partially on getting students into higher education (university).

The effectiveness of new initiatives introduced into a school or preschool setting.

Articles that focus on improving literacy standards and development.

Longitudinal study:
Research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over a long period of time.

Articles that discuss the impact of particular approaches in mathematics.

Parental involvement:
Activities where schools aim to involve parents in their child’s education, eg, via joint activities like reading at home.

Covers relations and development between parents and their children.

Performance pay:
The impact of teachers’ salary on improving school performance and pupil attainment.

Research that has implications for wider local or national government policy (ie, above school-level).

Those who have been affected by financial poverty, either families or children.

Studies that focus either entirely or partially on Nursery & Reception. (UK definition)

Studies that focus either entirely or partially on primary education. (UK definition ages 4-11)

There are a large number of these, so choose other keywords to return more precise results.

Articles that examine the effectiveness of an educational programme. Often used as a synonym for intervention.

Randomised controlled trial:
A study in which participants are allocated at random to receive one of several interventions. One of these interventions will be a control, which, for an education study, will often be the normal teaching that a child will receive. A randomised control trial can therefore provide a measure of the impact of a new intervention when compared with normal teaching practice.

Articles that focus on improving reading achievement.

Articles which discuss the development or impact of different approaches to teaching science.

School leadership:
Studies that look at the effectiveness of different styles of, or approaches to, school leadership.

Studies that focus either entirely or partially on secondary education. (UK definition ages 11-18)

There are a large number of these, so choose other keywords to return more precise results.

Social and emotional learning: 
Approaches aimed at improving the social and emotional well-being of students.

Socio-economic status:
Wealth and its implications for education.

Teaching strategies:
Articles that focus on how teachers teach in the classroom.

Articles that look at the use of technology in education.

Studies that look at the overall physical and emotional health of students.

Whole-school reform:
Initiatives that change the whole school rather than a single department or smaller unit.