A new report from the Institute of Education Sciences in the US has found that an intensive approach to helping principals (headteachers) improve their leadership practices did not improve pupil achievement or change principal practices as intended.
The study looked at the effectiveness of a professional
development (PD) programme for elementary (primary) school principals that
focused on helping them to conduct structured observations of teachers’
classroom teaching and provide targeted feedback. It provided nearly 200 hours
of PD over two years, half of it through individualised coaching. One hundred
schools from eight districts in five US states took part in the study. Within
each district, schools with similar characteristics were paired together, and
within each pair, one school was randomly assigned to participate in the programme
for two years while the other did not.
To measure the effects on pupil achievement, the researchers
compared pupil test scores in grades 3 to 5 (Years 4 to 6) for both years of
programme implementation plus one additional school year. They found that, on
average, pupils had similar achievement in English or maths whether they were
in schools that received the principal PD programme or not.
The results of the study also found that although the programme
was implemented as planned, principals did not increase the number of times
they observed teachers. In fact, teachers whose principals received the PD
reported receiving less frequent teaching support and feedback than teachers
whose principals did not receive the PD.
effects of a principal professional development program focused on
instructional leadership (October 2019), Institute
of Education Sciences, US Department of Education
The Knowledge Is Power
Program (KIPP) is the largest network of public charter schools in the US,
serving more than 100,000 pupils across a network of more than 240 schools.
KIPP schools predominantly educate low-income pupils from underserved
communities, with the goal of closing achievement gaps and preparing pupils to
succeed in college.
In this Mathematica report, Thomas Coen and colleagues present the results of a long-term tracking study that follows 1,177 pupils who applied to enter 1 of 13 oversubscribed KIPP middle schools through a 5th or 6th grade (Year 6 or 7) admissions lottery ten years ago.
The study found that pupils who won a place at a KIPP middle school through the admission lottery were six percentage points more likely to enrol in a four-year college programme within two years of finishing high school than pupils who lost the lottery. After adjusting for those pupils who actually attended a KIPP school after receiving an offer (only 68% of the lottery recipients actually attended a KIPP school), the impact estimate increased to 12.9 percentage points.
The study also tracked the pupils who enrolled in
college immediately after high school, and examined whether they remained in
college programmes over the next two years. Pupils who attended KIPP middle
schools were more likely to still be enrolled in college after two years (33%)
than similar pupils who did not attend KIPP middle schools (24%). However, although
rates of entering college immediately and then continuing for two years were
higher for KIPP pupils, this difference was not large enough to be
Source: Long-term impacts of KIPP middle schools on college
enrollment and early college persistence (September 2019), Mathematica
A study published in School Psychology investigates the importance of screening children for their readiness for kindergarten (Year 1), and how effective this is at predicting outcomes in first grade (Year 2).
Nineteen kindergarten teachers and 350 children from six
elementary schools in Missouri took part in the study. Teachers completed a
kindergarten academic and behaviour readiness screener at the beginning of the
academic year. Melissa Stormont and colleagues then compared pupil scores from
the screening tool to their performance on a maths and reading achievement test,
and to teacher ratings of their social and emotional skills 18 months later.
The results showed that children with poor academic readiness were more than 9 times more likely to have low reading scores at the end of their first-grade year. Similarly, children who rated poor in behaviour readiness were six times more likely to be rated as having displayed disruptive behaviour and poor social skills by their first-grade teachers. The authors suggest that the screening tool could be used to screen for children low in readiness in order to provide supports and monitoring for early intervention.
school readiness items in a kindergarten sample: Outcomes in first grade
(August 2019), School Psychology
The Institute of Education Sciences at the US Department of Education has released A review of instruments for measuring social and emotional learning skills among secondary school students. The review is designed to help state and local education agencies find assessments that measure secondary students’ social-emotional skills, specifically in the areas of collaboration, perseverance and self-regulated learning, and to help readers interpret the information about reliability and validity for each assessment.
A total of 16 assessments met the following inclusion
criteria for the review: they had to be publicly available, had to have been
administered to secondary students in the US, and had to have undergone
validation study in 1994 or after. Tables in the review detail the format of
instruments by emotional skill, and the reliability and type of validity
information for each assessment. Authors conclude with implications for use of
each type of instrument.
Source: A review
of instruments for measuring social and emotional learning skills among
secondary school students (October 2019), US
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (REL 2020–010
The American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Attendance Works have released a new report, Using Chronic Absence Data to Improve Conditions for Learning, which describes how data on chronic absence, defined as a pupil missing 10 or more days of school, can be a tool to warn administrators that pupils are not getting the support they need. The first half of the report describes four school characteristics that promote attendance — physical and emotional health and safety; belonging, connectedness and support; academic challenge and engagement; and adult and pupil social and emotional competence — and how they relate to attendance. The second half of the report describes how chronic attendance data can be used to diagnose weaknesses in learning conditions and presents specific steps that schools can take to promote better conditions.
Source: Using chronic absence data to improve conditions for learning (September 2019), Attendance Works and American Institutes for Research (AIR)
A study published in AERA Open looks at the long-term effects of the INSIGHTS programme – a social-emotional learning intervention that supports children’s ability to self-regulate by enhancing their attention and behaviour management.
Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 22 elementary (primary) schools from three New York City school districts were randomly assigned to participate in the INSIGHTS programme or to an attention-control condition (an after-school reading programme). A previous study found that the INSIGHTS programme reduced children’s disruptive behaviour and increased behavioural engagement by the end of first grade (Year 2). This study uses administrative data for those pupils to examine whether receiving the intervention in kindergarten and first grade (Years 1 and 2) had any impact on provision of special education services or grade retention (whether pupils had to repeat a year) by the end of fifth grade (Year 6). The study also considers whether impacts varied for low- versus high-income pupils.
The findings suggest that pupils in the INSIGHTS programme
were less likely to receive special education services between kindergarten and
fifth grade (p < .05). In addition, low-income pupils enrolled in
the INSIGHTS programme were also less likely to receive special
education services between kindergarten and fifth grade compared with
low-income children enrolled in the attention-control condition (p <
There were no effects of INSIGHTS on grade
retention up to the end of fifth grade and this did not vary according to
effects of social–emotional learning on receipt of special education and grade
retention: Evidence from a randomized trial of INSIGHTS (August 2019), AERA Open, DOI. 10.1177/2332858419867290