A meta-analysis in the Journal of Research in Reading has synthesised the findings of studies comparing print and digital text regarding time required to read, reading comprehension and readers’ perceptions of their comprehension. Researcher Virginia Clinton performed a systematic literature review, only including studies using random assignment and that were published between 2008 and 2018, yielding 29 reports of 33 studies for analysis. She found that readers require equal amounts of time to read print and digital text, although screen reading negatively impacted reading comprehension (effect size = -0.25). Readers were more accurately able to judge their comprehension on paper (effect size = +0.20) than on screen.
The negative effect on performance for reading text from
screens rather than paper did not vary for readers who were adults or children
(under 18). However, the author suggests this finding should be interpreted
with caution because there were more studies with adult participants (26) than
child participants (7).
Best Evidence in Brief reported on an earlier meta-analysis solely examining reading comprehension, whose results also favoured printed text.
Source: Reading from paper compared to screens: A systematic review and meta‐analysis (May 2019), Journal of Research in Reading, volume 42, issue 2
An intervention report from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) presents a summary of findings from a systematic review of summer counselling.
In the US, summer counselling interventions are
designed to help ensure that pupils who have finished high school and have an
offer to go on to higher education complete the steps needed to successfully
enrol. These steps could be taking
placement tests, arranging for housing, acquiring medical insurance, obtaining
financial aid, and registering for courses. The interventions are delivered during the months between leaving
high school and enrolment into higher education, and typically involve outreach
by college counsellors or peer mentors via text messaging campaigns, e-mail,
phone, in-person meetings, instant messaging or social media. Summer counselling
is also provided to help pupils overcome unanticipated financial, informational
and socio-emotional barriers that prevent enrolment in to higher education.
The review identified five studies of summer counselling
interventions which met WWC design standards. Together these studies included
more than 13,000 pupils who had recently finished high school in 10 locations
in the US. The results of the systematic review indicated that summer counselling
had potentially positive effects on credit accumulation and persistence, and
mixed effects on access to higher education and enrolment for students who had
recently finished high school.
counseling (March 2018), What Works Clearinghouse
Intervention Report, Institute of Education Sciences
A systematic review of the role of the teacher during collaborative learning in primary and secondary education suggests that several types of teacher guidance can be positive. However, the challenge for the teacher is to support interaction between pupils without taking control of the moments in which opportunities to learn arise for pupils.
The review, carried out by Anouschka van Leeuwen and Jeroen
Janssen, included both qualitative and quantitative studies (n=66) conducted in
primary and secondary schools, and looked at the relationship between the
teacher’s role and the processes and outcomes of collaboration among pupils.
The authors found that feedback, prompting, questioning and
transferring control of the learning process to pupils were all effective
strategies for collaborative learning. The review concludes that when guiding
collaborative learning, teachers should try to not only focus on the content of
the task, but also on how pupils approach the task and the strategies they use
for collaboration, and should let pupils know that help is available without
imposing this help.
systematic review of teacher guidance during collaborative learning in primary
and secondary education (February 2019), Educational
Research Review, volume 27
Research published in AERA Open examines the features needed for effective teacher professional development (PD) aimed at preparing teachers to support their pupils in mastering language expectations across the curriculum.
Eva Kalinowski and
colleagues conducted a systematic review of studies of PD programmes, published
between 2002 and 2015, which aimed to support teachers to improve their pupils’
academic language ability in different subject areas. Of the 38 studies they reviewed,
all but one were carried out in the US. Eighteen studies used quantitative data
only, three used a mainly qualitative approach, and 17 used mixed methods.
Although the researchers
were unable to conclude which elements actually influenced the effectiveness of
the programmes analysed, they found that all of the studies were effective to
some extent, and shared many characteristics considered to be important in
successful teacher PD across different subject areas. The forms of PD likely to
show some effect for teachers and pupils in this area:
were long-term intensive programmes that included multiple learning opportunities aimed at elaborating and practising newly learned knowledge and strategies
provided practical assistance
enabled and encouraged teachers to work together
considered teachers’ needs as well as pupils’ learning processes and languages spoken at home.
Source: Effective professional development
for teachers to foster students’ academic language proficiency across the curriculum:
A systematic review (February 2-19), AERA
A systematic review published in Review of Education looks at the evidence from randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of interventions for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in school settings.
Twenty-eight studies were included in the review and were sorted into eight categories of school-based intervention for ADHD. They were analysed for effectiveness according to a range of different ADHD symptoms, difficulties and school outcomes. The eight categories of intervention were: combined/multiple component; cognitive training; daily report card; neuro-feedback; relaxation; self-monitoring; study and organisation skills training; and task modification.
The strongest evidence of beneficial effects was found for interventions that combine multiple components. There was a large effect size (+0.79) for improved ADHD symptoms rated by teachers and parents, and a small effect size (+0.30) for parent- and teacher-rated academic outcomes.
Interventions involving daily report cards also showed some promise for academic outcomes (effect size = +0.68). There was a beneficial effect on academic outcomes for neuro-feedback interventions, and mixed findings for relaxation and self-monitoring interventions.
Source: School‐based interventions for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review with multiple synthesis methods (October 2018), Review of Education Volume 6, Issue 3
Findings from a study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry suggest that children who are the youngest in their classroom are more likely to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than their older classmates.
Martin Whitely and colleagues conducted a systematic review of 22 studies that examined the relationship between a child’s age relative to their classmates and their chances of being diagnosed with, or medicated for, ADHD. Seventeen studies (with a total of more than 14 million children) found that it was more common for the youngest children in a school year to be diagnosed as ADHD than their older classmates. This effect was found for both countries that have a high diagnosis rate, like the US, Canada and Iceland, and countries where diagnosis is less common, like Finland and Sweden.
The researchers suggest that some teachers may be mistaking normal age-related immaturity of the youngest children in their class for ADHD, and that these findings highlight the importance of being aware of the impact of relative age and give the youngest children in class the extra time they may need to mature.
Source: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder late birthdate effect common in both high and low prescribing international jurisdictions: systematic review (October 2018), The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry doi:10.1111/jcpp.12991