A randomised controlled trial published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly examines the effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers (PAT) programme in Zurich, Switzerland.
PAT is a parent teaching programme that begins during
pregnancy, or shortly after birth, and continues until the child’s third
birthday. Among its goals, PAT aims to increase parental knowledge of early
childhood development and improve parental practice and, in the long term,
increase the child’s school readiness and success.
A total of 261 children from 248 families took part in the
trial. Families in the intervention group (n=132) were supported with regular
home visits from qualified parent educators with a degree in early education,
and attended group meetings. The 116 families in the control group had access
to the normal community services but were not supported by PAT.
After three years of the PAT programme, children showed more age-appropriate adaptive behaviour, with small effect sizes in both self-help skills (ES = +0.26) and developmental milestones (ES = +0.26). There were also positive effects on children’s language skills – particularly expressive language skills (ES = +0.39). PAT was also found to positively affect children’s problem behaviour (ES = +0.30).
By contrast, however, no meaningful increases were observed
in children’s health, cognitive development, or motor development.
of home-based early intervention on child outcomes: A randomized controlled
trial of Parents as Teachers in Switzerland (May 2019), Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 48
An article previously published in Frontiers in Psychology by Lisa Wagner and Willibald Ruch reported on two studies conducted with 179 primary pupils from three schools, and 199 secondary pupils from four schools in Switzerland to examine whether character strengths are important to school success for primary and secondary pupils.
The authors measured
character strengths by the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth
(VIA-Youth,) and positive classroom behaviours with the Classroom Behavior
Rating Scale (CBRS), which cover positive achievement-related behaviour and
positive social behaviour. For primary pupils, achievement was obtained by
teacher ratings; for secondary pupils, the schools’ administration offices
provided their grades. The findings showed that:
- Perseverance, prudence,
hope, social intelligence and self-regulation were positively related to
positive classroom behaviour for both primary and secondary pupils.
prudence, hope, love of learning, perspective, zest and gratitude were positively
related to school achievement for both primary and secondary pupils.
- Perseverance, prudence
and hope were associated with both positive classroom behaviour and school
achievement across primary and secondary sectors.
According to the authors, these findings indicate there is a rather distinct set of strengths most relevant in schools. The authors also suggest that further research could explore whether teachers and pupils value these strengths.
Source: Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates
the link between character strengths and school achievement (May 2015), Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6
Prior research has indicated that an individual adolescent’s behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of his or her classmates. But while most studies have focused on negative peer influence, a study published in Journal of Adolescence investigates whether individual anti-social behaviours in adolescents can potentially be reduced by promoting pro-social behaviour at the classroom level.
In order to determine whether classmates’ pro-social behaviour is related to lower anti-social behaviour of pupils, Verena Hofmann and Christoph Michael Müller conducted a longitudinal study among lower secondary school pupils in Switzerland (mean age = 13.8 years). The sample included 55 classrooms in eight schools, and the researchers analysed data collected at the end of Grade 7, Grade 8, and Grade 9 (Years 7–10). Participants completed self-reported assessments on pro-social behaviour, anti-social behaviour, and anti-social attitudes. Classmates’ pro- and anti-social behaviour for each pupil was calculated by averaging all pupils’ scores in a class, excluding the pupils’ own score.
While children generally developed more anti-social behaviour over time, particularly those who had higher initial levels of anti-social behaviour, results indicated that more pro-social behaviour among classmates predicted lower levels of individual anti-social behaviour and anti-social attitudes in the future.
Source: Avoiding antisocial behavior among adolescents: The positive influence of classmates’ prosocial behavior (October 2018), Journal of Adolescence, volume 68