Evidence supports Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies

Safe and Civil Schools’ Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies is a programme designed to create a safer climate within a school and its surrounding grounds. It focuses on using proactive techniques instead of punishment to facilitate change, a technique referred to as school-wide positive behavioural intervention and support (SWPBIS). Foundations helps schools adopt and maintain these techniques by providing school teams with training and data-gathering materials, multiyear training, coaching support and school visits. The programme requires a team at each school to teach the staff these techniques, and data related to safety and behaviour is used to gauge what is working and what is not.

A randomised controlled trial in 32 US elementary (primary) schools in a large urban school district demonstrated that Foundations yielded improvements in school discipline, pupil safety policy and training, staff perceptions of pupils behaviour and suspension and tardiness rates over a two-year period. To determine if positive results of the programme would generalise into a “real world” setting, a second study continued to evaluate these elementary schools for two more years while also scaling up to add all remaining elementary and secondary schools in the district, when these schools adopted the programme without support from research funding.

In total, 74 regular public schools participated in the scale-up study. All schools received two years of Foundations training where school teams learned how to implement improvements related to safety, behaviour and discipline, and to collect and analyse related data to set goals for the next year.

As in the randomised study, schools in the second study showed gains in all areas. Specifically, after Foundations training, staff reported improved pupil behaviour, with fewer suspensions, absenteeism and tardiness, with a positive relationship evidenced between years of implementation and rates of effectiveness. The authors concluded that the improvements from the Foundations training were evidence that the programme generalises well into the real world setting.

Source: A randomized evaluation of the Safe and Civil Schools model for positive behavioral interventions and supports at elementary schools in a large urban school district, School Psychology Review, Volume 42, Issue 3

Scale-up of a Safe & Civil Schools’ model for school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (April 2016), Psychology in the Schools, Volume 53, Issue 4

Using data to help ensure equity in suspensions

A new guide is available from the Institute of Education Sciences to help educators in the US to use data to determine if any ethnic groups are being disproportionately suspended or expelled within a school or district, and if so, how to use data to promote equity among all ethnic groups.

The guide is divided into two sections. The first describes how to use multiple data to analyse if a group is being disproportionately suspended or expelled, and how to determine the effectiveness of any interventions that might be in place. It also describes the data that can be used to analyse factors that may be contributing to any disproportion. In cases where a school or district determines there are inequalities that may be unjust, the second section outlines a process that helps promote equitable discipline, called Plan-Do-Study-Act. One district’s successful experience using the Plan-Do-Study-Act process is described in detail. The back of the guide contains websites and resources related to equity in school discipline and quality improvement processes.

Source: School discipline data indicators: A guide for districts and schools (April 2017), US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest (REL 2017–240)