Maths achievement has been thought to be interrelated with self-concept, interest, and effort. In a recent longitudinal study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology, researchers examined how these factors influence each other over time using a sample of Grade 8 (Year 9) pupils in China.
A total of 702 pupils in
Grade 8 from 14 classes in two public schools in East and South China completed
an assessment of their maths achievement, homework self-concept, interest and
effort at six weeks after the start of the school year and at the end of the
school year. The analysis showed that:
Reciprocal effects were found between maths self-concept
and achievement, effort and achievement, as well as interest and effort.
In particular, the authors found that higher
homework interest led to higher subsequent effort, and higher prior effort
could promote higher homework interest.
had no significant effect on subsequent interest, but prior interest led to
higher self-concept, possibly reflecting the positive homework attitude among
The authors suggest that the reciprocal effects indicated that simultaneously improving homework self-concept, interest, effort and maths achievement is a more effective approach. Specifically, attention should be paid to how homework interest and effort can be promoted more effectively.
Source: Reciprocal effects of
homework self-concept, interest, effort, and math achievement (October 2018), Contemporary Educational Psychology
One of the greatest challenges facing community colleges in
the US is that most students’ maths skills are below college level. These
students are often referred to developmental maths courses, however, most
students never complete the course and fail to earn a college degree.
A study published in Journal ofResearch on Educational Effectiveness looks at whether a modularised, computer-assisted approach that allows students to move at their own pace through the developmental maths course has any impact on students’ likelihood of completing the developmental maths course, compared with more traditional teaching.
The findings of the randomised trial of 1,400 students found
that although the programme was well-implemented, there was no evidence that it
was any more or less effective than traditional courses at helping students complete
the developmental maths course. The researchers comment that although the
results are disappointing, they are important because modularisation and
self-paced computer-assisted approaches are popular teaching methods.
randomized controlled trial of a modularized, computer-assisted, self-paced
approach to developmental math (September 2019), Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness
The Education Endowment Foundation has published an evaluation of Digital Feedback in Primary Maths, a programme that aims to improve primary school teachers’ feedback to pupils.
The intervention uses a tablet application called Explain Everything, diagnostic assessments, and training on effective feedback. The app allows teachers to provide pupils with digitally recorded feedback on a tablet, rather than written feedback. Pupils have the opportunity to review their feedback and develop their work further. By improving teachers’ diagnostic and feedback skills when teaching maths in primary schools, the intervention aims to ultimately improve pupils’ outcomes in maths.
To estimate the impact of Digital Feedback on maths achievement,
the evaluation used a randomised controlled trial involving 2,564 pupils in 108
classes across 34 English primary schools. While the intervention took place in
each school, classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment or control
group, which carried on with business-as-usual teaching.
The results of the evaluation found no evidence that pupils taking part in the programme made more progress in maths, on average (effect size = -0.04), than the control group.
feedback in primary maths (September 2019), Education
An independent evaluation of Stop and Think: Learning Counterintuitive Concepts has found evidence of a positive impact in maths and science outcomes for pupils in Key Stage 2.
The Learning Counterintuitive Concepts project, funded by
the Education Endowment Foundation and Wellcome, aimed to improve science and maths
achievement for Year 3 (7–8 year olds) and Year 5 (9–10 year olds) using an
intervention called Stop and Think. When learning new concepts in science and
maths, pupils must be able to inhibit prior contradictory knowledge and
misconceptions to acquire new knowledge successfully. Stop and Think is a
computer-assisted learning activity that aims to improve a learner’s ability to
adapt to counterintuitive concepts by training them to inhibit their initial
response, and instead, give a slower and more reflective answer.
The randomised controlled trial involved 6,672 children from
89 schools across England. The intervention was delivered to the whole class
and consisted of 30 sessions delivered for a maximum of 15 minutes, three times
a week, for 10 weeks at the start of maths or science lessons.
The results suggest that pupils who participated in Stop and
Think made more progress in science and maths on average, compared to children
in the business-as-usual control group. The combined effect size across
the two year groups for maths was +0.09 and +0.12 for science.
To check whether this impact was due to the Stop and Think
game specifically, or was a result of the extra pupil engagement and motivation
arising from having a fun computer-based activity at the start of lessons more
generally, schools were offered an alternative computer-based programme that
did not include any content from Stop and Think. Intervention-group pupils
also made more progress than pupils in this “active” control group. The
combined effect sizes for maths and science were +0.13 and +0.15 respectively.
Source: Stop and
Think: Learning counterintuitive concepts. Evaluation report (September 2019), Education Endowment Foundation
A study published in Oxford Review of Education evaluates the effects of TutorBright tutoring on the reading and maths skills of children in family foster care. TutorBright uses one-to-one, at-home tutoring with detailed instructor’s manuals and customised pupil workbooks. Children receive two one-hour tutoring sessions per week, on designated days of the week, for up to 50 hours of tutoring. Children in the waiting list control group were asked to continue with their schooling as usual and not seek additional tutoring or academic support during the school year, and were then offered the tutoring intervention at the end of the school year. TutorBright tutors all had experience with teaching or mentoring, and an undergraduate or master’s degree (completed or in progress).
For the randomised controlled trial, conducted by Andrea J
Hickey and Robert J Flynn, child welfare workers nominated foster care children
in Ontario, Canada, who met the following criteria: enrolled in grades 1–11 (Years
2–12), fluent in English, currently living in a foster-family setting, and
judged likely to remain in care for the duration of the study. Thirty-four
children were randomly assigned to tutoring, and 36 to a waiting-list control
The results suggest that the tutored children made greater
gains than those in the control group in reading fluency (effect size = +0.16),
reading comprehension (ES = +0.34) and maths calculation (ES = +0.39).
of the TutorBright tutoring programme on the reading and mathematics skills of
children in foster care: a randomised controlled trial (July 2019), Oxford Review of Education, 45:4
Research into grouping by achievement, by academics from
Queen’s University Belfast and University College London, has found that nearly
a third of students in England were allocated to higher or lower maths sets
than their previous test performance implied.
The study, published in the British Educational Research Journal, analysed data from 9,301 Year 7 students at 46 secondary schools in England. The researchers compared which maths set the students would have been put in – based on Key Stage 2 maths test scores – with the sets they were actually placed in. Overall, they found that 31.1% of students were misallocated – placed in sets that were either higher or lower than their results at the end of primary school would have indicated.
Boys were slightly more likely to be misallocated to higher
sets in maths (16.7%) than lower sets (13.0%), whereas girls were more likely
to be misallocated to lower sets (17.9%) than higher sets (14.7%). Other
findings showed that:
Black students were 2.4 times more likely than
white students to be misallocated to a lower maths set.
Asian students were 1.7 times more likely than white
students to be misallocated to a lower maths set.
Female students were 1.53 times more likely than
males to be misallocated to a lower maths set.
White students were 2.09 times more likely than
black students to be misallocated to a higher maths set.
White students were 1.72 times more likely than
Asian students to be misallocated to a higher maths set.
Male students were 1.32 times more likely than females to be misallocated to a higher maths set.
Source: The misallocation of students to academic sets in maths: A study of secondary schools in England (June 2019) British Educational Research Journal