Future planning and achievement among pupils

Several studies have related the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how pupils plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between Chinese middle school pupils’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains.

The study included three assessments six months apart from spring 2014 to spring 2015 in Shandong Province in eastern China. A total of 775 pupils from sixth to eighth grade (Years 7–9) participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured pupils’ future explorations, commitments, and affects concerning future education and occupations. Data on their academic achievement were collected from school records of their scores in Chinese, English and maths. The relationships were analysed with data collected at different times.

The analysis showed that:

  • There were reciprocal relationships between academic achievement and pupils’ future educational planning.
  • Reciprocal relationships were not seen between academic achievement and future planning in the occupational domain.
  • Commitment’s relationship to achievement was more robust than that of exploration to achievement.
  • The relationships were the same for both boys and girls.

The authors suggest that understanding the importance of educational performance led middle school pupils to invest more effort into improving achievement. The social status brought by high academic achievement in Chinese society might also trigger positive affects concerning future planning.

Source: Longitudinal relations between future planning and adolescents’ academic achievement in China (August 2019), Journal of Adolescence, Volume 75

The positive influence of classmates’ behaviour

Prior research has indicated that an individual adolescent’s behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of his or her classmates. But while most studies have focused on negative peer influence, a study published in Journal of Adolescence investigates whether individual anti-social behaviours in adolescents can potentially be reduced by promoting pro-social behaviour at the classroom level.

In order to determine whether classmates’ pro-social behaviour is related to lower anti-social behaviour of pupils, Verena Hofmann and Christoph Michael Müller conducted a longitudinal study among lower secondary school pupils in Switzerland (mean age = 13.8 years). The sample included 55 classrooms in eight schools, and the researchers analysed data collected at the end of Grade 7, Grade 8, and Grade 9 (Years 7–10). Participants completed self-reported assessments on pro-social behaviour, anti-social behaviour, and anti-social attitudes. Classmates’ pro- and anti-social behaviour for each pupil was calculated by averaging all pupils’ scores in a class, excluding the pupils’ own score.

While children generally developed more anti-social behaviour over time, particularly those who had higher initial levels of anti-social behaviour, results indicated that more pro-social behaviour among classmates predicted lower levels of individual anti-social behaviour and anti-social attitudes in the future.

Source: Avoiding antisocial behavior among adolescents: The positive influence of classmates’ prosocial behavior (October 2018), Journal of Adolescence, volume 68