The effect of screen time on academic performance

A meta-analysis examining the evidence between overall screen time, specific screen-based activities, and academic performance found that overall screen time is not related to children’s and teens’ academic achievement, yet the type of screen time is.

Mireia Adelantado-Renau and colleagues in Spain found that TV and video game time greater than two hours a day was associated with poorer academic achievement, while internet and mobile phone time was not. In addition, the negative effects on academic performance were larger for teens than for children.

The meta-analysis included 58 studies from 23 countries that met its inclusion criteria, encompassing the academic achievement of 106,000 4–18 year olds (assessed by school grades, standardised tests, and academic failure). Subgroup analysis was conducted between children and teens. In children (4–12 years old), the length of TV watching negatively affected performance in language (effect size = -0.20) and maths (ES= -0.36); in teens (12–18 years old), longer TV duration affected language (ES= -0.18) and maths (ES= -0.21). Playing video games also negatively impacted teens’ scores (ES= -0.16), but did not affect the scores of younger children (ES=+0.04).

The authors suggest that these findings offer evidence that decreasing TV and video game time might be an effective strategy in improving academic achievement in children and teens.

Source: Association between screen media use and academic performance among children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis (September 2019), JAMA Pediatrics

Effect of preschool home visiting on school readiness

A study published in JAMA Pediatrics examines the sustained effects of a preschool home visiting programme on child outcomes in third grade (Year 4). Karen Bierman and colleagues conducted a randomised controlled trial of the Research-Based and Developmentally Informed Parent home visiting program (REDI-P) on 200 families with preschool children recruited from 24 Head Start centres in Pennsylvania.

Families were assigned to either receive the REDI-P intervention or be sent maths learning games in the post (control group). The intervention focused on improving academic performance and social-emotional adjustment, and reducing children’s problems at home. Families received ten visits from home visitors during preschool and six follow-up visits in kindergarten. Parents received coaching to enhance parent–child relationships and home learning materials to support children’s development and school readiness.

Overall, REDI-P produced sustained benefits four years after the intervention, with children in the REDI-P intervention group needing and using fewer school services than children in the control group. Results showed improvements in academic performance in third grade, measured by direct assessments of child sight-word reading fluency (effect size = +0.28) and teacher-rated academic performance in third grade (effect size= +0.29). The intervention also promoted sustained improvements in children’s social-emotional adjustment, reflected in direct assessments of social understanding (effect size = +0.31). REDI-P also produced reductions in the home problems that parents reported (effect size= −0.28).

Source: Effect of Preschool Home Visiting on School Readiness and Need for Services in Elementary School: A Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(8):e181029.

A wide range of approaches may help improve pupils’ ability to manage behaviours and emotions

Research published in JAMA Pediatrics has found there are a wide range of different approaches that can be effective in improving self-regulation skills (the ability to control emotions, avoid inappropriate or aggressive behaviour and engage in self-directed learning) in children and teenagers.

Anuja Pandey and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of evaluations of interventions designed to improve pupils’ self-regulation. Data from 49 studies with a total of more than 23,000 pupils ranging in age from 2 to 17 years was examined. The interventions were classified as curriculum-based programmes (n=21), mindfulness and yoga interventions (n=8), family-based programmes (n=9), exercise-based programmes (n=6) and interventions focused on social and personal skills (n= 6). The researchers found that most interventions (n=33) were successful in improving pupils’ ability to manage behaviour and emotion. A meta-analysis showed there was a positive effect of the interventions, with a pooled effect size of +0.42.

There was no age group in which interventions were more effective. While a curriculum-based approach was most commonly used to deliver interventions, the study found that self-regulation interventions can be effective in family settings targeting parenting practices and sibling relationships.

Source: Effectiveness of universal self-regulation–based interventions in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis (April 2018), JAMA Pediatrics Doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0232

Mediating media

A new study published in JAMA Pediatrics explores parental monitoring of children’s media use. It examines its effects on physical, social, and academic outcomes, and the links between monitoring children’s media use and a wide range of these outcomes.

A total of 1,323 children aged 8-11 from ten schools in Iowa and Minnesota were recruited to participate. The authors collected data at the beginning and end of one school year from home and school surveys, and from a primary caregiver and teacher for each child. Measures included health (height, weight, BMI), as well as demographics, parental monitoring of media, total screen time, media violence exposure, school performance, and well-being.

The study revealed that increased parental monitoring was correlated with a reduction in children’s total screen time, which in turn resulted in more sleep. More monitoring was also correlated with improved school performance, increased pro-social behaviour, and lower aggressive behaviour.

Exposure to media violence predicted lower pro-social behaviour and higher aggressive behaviour. Increased parental monitoring was correlated with less exposure to media violence, which in turn was correlated with increased pro-social behaviour and decreased aggressive behaviour. The researchers controlled for parental education, marital status, child gender, and minority status.

Although the American Association of Pediatrics makes a number of general recommendations on total screen time, the authors suggest it may be useful for parents to know that there are four types of parental monitoring: co-viewing with the child; restricting amount of time; restricting the types of content; and actively discussing the meaning and effects of media content with children (active mediation).

Source: Protective Effects of Parental Monitoring of Children’s Media Use: A Prospective Study (2014), JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5).