The latest blog post from Robert Slavin, a Professor in the IEE and director of the Center for Research and Reform in Education, considers the large number of randomised experiments evaluating educational programmes that find few achievement effects. This is a problem that will take on increasing significance as results from the first cohort of the US Investing in Innovation (i3) grants are released.
At the same time, the Education Endowment Foundation in the UK, much like i3, will also begin to report outcomes. It’s possible that the majority of these projects will fail to produce significant positive effects in rigorous, well-conducted evaluations. However, there is much to be learned in the process. For example, the i3 process is producing a great deal of information about what works and what does not, what gets implemented and what does not, and the match between schools’ needs and programmes’ approaches.
A new review commissioned by the Education Endowment Foundation summarises existing evidence about education approaches and interventions that are based (or claim to be based) on neuroscience. The review looked at 18 different topics and considered the strength of evidence to support them and how close they are to a practical application in education.
Five topics were found to be the most developed in terms of educational application and have the most promising evidence about their impact on educational outcomes. These were:
- Mathematics. Maths anxiety interferes with neurocognitive processes that are crucial to learning, but the effects can be mediated by an individual’s recruitment of cognitive control networks.
- Reading. Mapping letter symbols to sound and comprehending meaning.
- Exercise. Participating in physical activity to increase the efficiency of neural networks.
- Spaced learning. Learning content multiple times with breaks in between.
- Testing. Being tested on studied material aids memory.
The author notes that there is a growing interest in neuroscience-informed education, but that this enthusiasm means that the topic needs to be approached with care. He concludes that all of the parties involved – neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists, educational researchers, and teachers – should work together to ensure that the neuroscience is properly interpreted and applied through educational interventions that are meaningful, feasible, and rigorously tested.
Source: Neuroscience and Education: A Review of Educational Interventions and Approaches Informed by Neuroscience (2014), Education Endowment Foundation.
The UK government has launched the What Works Network – six independent institutions responsible for gathering, assessing, and sharing the most robust evidence to inform policy and service delivery in health, education, crime, promoting active and independent ageing, effective early intervention, and fostering local economic growth. The network includes a number of existing organisations:
- The What Works Centre for Improving Education Outcomes for School-aged Children will be the Education Endowment Foundation.
- The What Works Centre for Early Intervention will be provided by the recently formed Early Intervention Foundation.
- The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) will provide the What Works Centre for health.
Other centres will be set up in the coming months.
An expanded version of the Sutton Trust-EEF (Education Endowment Foundation) Teaching and Learning Toolkit is now available, providing guidance for teachers and schools on how to use their resources to improve the achievement of disadvantaged students. This new version has been developed from the “Pupil Premium Toolkit” and provides a summary of educational research on 21 topics in terms of potential impact on attainment, strength of supporting evidence, cost, and applicability.
A new addition to the Teaching and Learning Toolkit is phonics. The approach shows a moderate impact (an average impact of +4 months) for a moderate cost, and good evidence – three or more meta-analyses from well controlled experiments.
Source: Education Endowment Foundation, Sutton Trust