Restorative Practices Intervention did not produce significant changes

The results of a randomised controlled trial of a whole-school intervention designed to build a supportive school environment and reduce bullying found that it did not produce significant changes in the treatment schools.

The study, published in Journal of Youth and Adolescence, evaluated the Restorative Practices Intervention to assess the extent of implementation and changes in school connectedness, positive developmental outcomes, and bullying. The intervention involves training all school staff on how to carry out 11 restorative practices (eg, communication approaches that aim to build stronger bonds among leadership, staff, and pupils such as using “I” statements, encouraging pupils to express their feelings).

For the randomised controlled trial, Joie Acosta and colleagues collected baseline and two-year post survey data from pupils in grades 6 and 7 (Years 7 and 8) at 14 US middle schools. Schools were randomised so that seven schools received the Restorative Practices Intervention and seven did not.

The results of the study suggest that the intervention did not produce any significant changes in the treatment schools. Intervention schools did not report more school connectedness, better school climate, more positive peer relationships, or less victimisation. Indeed, the Restorative Practices Intervention only delivered a modest amount of restorative experiences, and not much different from the amount control schools received.

However, pupils’ self-reported experience with restorative practices significantly predicted improved school climate and connectedness, peer attachment and social skills, and reduced cyberbullying victimisation. The researchers conclude that, while more work is needed on how interventions can reliably produce restorative experiences, this study suggests that the restorative model can be useful in promoting positive behaviours and addressing bullying.

Source: Evaluation of a whole-school change intervention: findings from a two-year cluster-randomized trial of the restorative practices intervention (March 2019), Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48

What works for bullying prevention?

Child Trends has released a new policy brief on preventing bullying and cyberbullying. The report provides information on the current state of bullying research using data from the US Department of Education, journal articles, and existing research by Child Trends, and provides recommendations for addressing and preventing bullying behaviour.

The report notes that while many bullying prevention programmes and strategies are available, evidence of their effectiveness has been mixed, and most have never been rigorously evaluated. Based on the existing research, the report provides the following recommendations:

  • Include cyberbullying as part of a broader approach to bullying prevention. Strategies targeting cyberbullying alone without addressing the broader issue of bullying are unlikely to be effective. Similarly, monitoring pupils’ social media accounts is likely to be an ineffective use of resources without additional efforts to encourage more civil behaviour online and in person.
  • Support the development of evidence-based approaches through dedicated funding for research. Such investments should also examine interventions, such as integrated pupil supports, for pupils who are targeted by bullying or witness it.
  • Discourage approaches that lack evidentiary support, criminalise young people, or remove them from school. Research shows that anti-bullying assemblies, speakers, and campaigns are not effective at preventing bullying, nor are zero-tolerance policies that remove students from school and do not address the underlying causes of bullying behaviour.

Source: Preventing bullying and cyberbullying: research-based policy recommendations for executive and legislative officials in 2017 (Jan 2017), Child Trends