Maths achievement has been thought to be interrelated with self-concept, interest, and effort. In a recent longitudinal study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology, researchers examined how these factors influence each other over time using a sample of Grade 8 (Year 9) pupils in China.
A total of 702 pupils in
Grade 8 from 14 classes in two public schools in East and South China completed
an assessment of their maths achievement, homework self-concept, interest and
effort at six weeks after the start of the school year and at the end of the
school year. The analysis showed that:
Reciprocal effects were found between maths self-concept
and achievement, effort and achievement, as well as interest and effort.
In particular, the authors found that higher
homework interest led to higher subsequent effort, and higher prior effort
could promote higher homework interest.
had no significant effect on subsequent interest, but prior interest led to
higher self-concept, possibly reflecting the positive homework attitude among
The authors suggest that the reciprocal effects indicated that simultaneously improving homework self-concept, interest, effort and maths achievement is a more effective approach. Specifically, attention should be paid to how homework interest and effort can be promoted more effectively.
Source: Reciprocal effects of
homework self-concept, interest, effort, and math achievement (October 2018), Contemporary Educational Psychology
A study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology suggests that the relationship between test anxiety and performance in high-stakes tests is positive, but the relationship varies for pupils with different achievement levels.
Yao-Ting Sung and
colleagues at the National Taiwan University used data from 1,931 Taiwanese
ninth grade (Year 10) pupils from 37 schools. The Basic Competence Test
(BCTEST) was used to benchmark their achievement. The BCTEST is a high-stakes
test for Taiwan junior-high school pupils, determining to which high schools
with different levels of prestige and tuition fees they will be admitted.
Subjects in the test included Mandarin, English, mathematics, social studies, science
and writing. Test anxiety was measured by the examination stress scale.
The overall relationship between text-anxiety and learning achievement in high-stakes testing was positive (r =+0.18).
Lower levels of test-anxiety were found among high-achievement and low-achievement pupils while higher levels of test-anxiety were found among moderate-achievement pupils.
For higher achievement pupils, the relationship between text-anxiety and achievement in high-stakes testing was found to be negative (r = -0.16), while for the group of pupils with lower achievement, a positive relationship was found (r= +0.22).
Source: Reexamining the relationship between test anxiety and
learning achievement: An individual-differences perspective (July 2016), Contemporary Educational Pyschology, Volume
A study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology looks at the benefits of a school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention in relation to academic achievement by examining how the four main components that underlie the SEL model (children’s social-emotional competence, school connectedness, mental health problems and academic achievement) interact over time.
Margarita Panayiotou and colleagues from Manchester
Institute of Education used data drawn from a major cluster randomised trial of
the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum to present a
three-wave (annual assessment, T1, T2, T3) longitudinal sample. The sample
included 1,626 pupils from 45 primary schools in north-west England. They
examined the relationship over time between social-emotional competence (T1),
school connectedness (T2), mental health difficulties (T2), and academic achievement
(T3), and whether exposure to an SEL intervention (in this case PATHS versus
usual provision) had any effect on these relationships.
Social-emotional competence at T1 had a positive influence
on school connectedness and mental health difficulties at T2. However, SEL was
only a significant predictor and mediator of academic achievement at T3 after
controlling for gender and prior academic performance. Pupils who had greater
social-emotional competence at T1 were reported to experience fewer mental
health difficulties at T2, and this in turn predicted higher academic achievement
at T3 (p<0.01). However, greater connectedness to school at T2 did not
predict later academic achievement. Intervention exposure did not appear to
influence these relationships.
empirical basis for linking social and emotional learning to academic
performance (January 2019). Contemporary
Educational Psychology, Volume 56