Researchers at Child Trends, the Claremont Evaluation Center, and LA’s BEST—a large afterschool programme for children aged 5 to 12, in Los Angeles—have developed a white paper for programme leaders, policymakers and other afterschool stakeholders that examines promising practices for promoting positive youth development in afterschool programmes.
The research team conducted a review of the literature (limited to
meta-analyses) on protective and promotive factors that (1) support positive
developmental outcomes among young people, (2) are malleable through
intervention, and (3) have direct relevance to the afterschool context. The
literature review highlighted four categories of actionable, evidence-informed
practices that afterschool programme leadership and staff can implement to
build protective and promotive factors. The four categories are as follows:
organisational practices: practices that afterschool leadership can
purposefully utilise to support the implementation of high-quality programming
in afterschool programmes (eg, leadership engages in thoughtful staff hiring,
onboarding and training practices; leadership fosters collaboration among staff
and across settings).
learning environments: practices fostered by staff that can create
afterschool environments in which young people feel physically and emotionally
safe and supported in various domains of development (eg, staff offer a variety
of activities that align with diverse needs and interests of young people;
staff facilitate small, interactive groups).
and nurturing relationships: practices that enhance staff members’
interactions and communications with, and responses to, young people enrolled
in afterschool programmes (eg, staff model and reinforce positive behaviours,
empower youth to discover and embrace their unique identities, set and enforce
clear rules and expectations).
and explicit focus on youth skill development: staff can focus on this area through
concrete supports that help young people develop malleable individual characteristics
and competencies (eg, supporting the use of effective problem-solving skills,
helping children develop positive interpersonal relationship skills and working
with children to develop their understanding of emotions).
practices for building protective and promotive factors to support positive
youth development in afterschool (November 2018), Claremont Evaluation Center, Claremont Graduate University
A randomised controlled trial published in Frontiers of Psychology, assesses the impact of a kindergarten-based yoga programme on cognitive performance, visual-motor coordination, and inattentive and hyperactive behaviours in five-year-old Tunisian children.
Forty-five children (28 female and 17 male) took part in the
12-week trial, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Fifteen
children performed Hatha yoga twice a week for 30 minutes per session, 15
children performed generic physical education twice a week for 30 minutes per
session, and another 15 children performed no kind of physical activity, and
served as a control group.
Prior to and after the 12 weeks, all children completed a
visual attention test and a visual-motor precision test, and teachers evaluated
their inattention and hyperactivity behaviours. The three interventions were
conducted in parallel and supervised by teachers who were not involved in
rating the children’s behaviour pre- and post-test.
Sana Jarraya and colleagues found that yoga had a positive
impact on children’s inattention and hyperactivity compared to the other two
groups. Yoga also had a positive impact on the completion times for two
visual-motor precision tasks in comparison to children in the physical
education group. The visual attention scores of the yoga group were also higher
in comparison to the control group.
The researchers concluded that yoga could be a cost-effective
exercise for enhancing cognitive and behavioural factors relevant for leaning
and academic achievement among young children.
Source: 12 weeks
of kindergarten-based yoga practice increases visual attention, visual-motor
precision and decreases behavior of inattention and hyperactivity in 5-year-old
children (April 2019), Frontiers in
Increasing a student’s sense of being in control is an important factor in reducing test anxiety, according to a study published in School Psychology Quarterly, which reports the findings of an intervention to reduce test anxiety in secondary school students who are preparing for high-stakes exams.
Fifty-six Year 10 and 11 students from two secondary schools in urban areas of England participated in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups: an early intervention group (n=25), or a wait-list control group (n=31). The intervention comprised six sessions which used both cognitive and behavioural approaches, delivered over six weeks (one session per week).
David Putwain and Marc Pescod measured test anxiety (using the Revised Test Anxiety Scale) and uncertain control (using the Motivation and Engagement Scale) for all participants at three time points: a baseline measurement before either group had received the intervention; after the early intervention group had received the intervention; and after the wait-list control had received the intervention.
The results suggest that after receiving the intervention, students showed a moderate reduction in the worry and tension components of test anxiety and uncertain control.
Source: Is reducing uncertain control the key to successful test anxiety intervention for secondary school students? Findings from a randomized control trial, (June 2018), School Psychology Quarterly.
An article previously published in Frontiers in Psychology by Lisa Wagner and Willibald Ruch reported on two studies conducted with 179 primary pupils from three schools, and 199 secondary pupils from four schools in Switzerland to examine whether character strengths are important to school success for primary and secondary pupils.
The authors measured
character strengths by the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth
(VIA-Youth,) and positive classroom behaviours with the Classroom Behavior
Rating Scale (CBRS), which cover positive achievement-related behaviour and
positive social behaviour. For primary pupils, achievement was obtained by
teacher ratings; for secondary pupils, the schools’ administration offices
provided their grades. The findings showed that:
- Perseverance, prudence,
hope, social intelligence and self-regulation were positively related to
positive classroom behaviour for both primary and secondary pupils.
prudence, hope, love of learning, perspective, zest and gratitude were positively
related to school achievement for both primary and secondary pupils.
- Perseverance, prudence
and hope were associated with both positive classroom behaviour and school
achievement across primary and secondary sectors.
According to the authors, these findings indicate there is a rather distinct set of strengths most relevant in schools. The authors also suggest that further research could explore whether teachers and pupils value these strengths.
Source: Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates
the link between character strengths and school achievement (May 2015), Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6
A small-scale study by Clayton Cook and colleagues, published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, investigated the impact of a Positive Greetings at the Door (PGD) strategy.
Ten English and maths classrooms (from sixth to eighth grade – Years 7-9) in two schools in the Pacific Northwest of the United States were identified that had low levels of academic engaged time (AET) and a high rate of disruptive and off-task behaviour. In total, 203 pupils took part. A randomised block design was used to allocate the classes to intervention and control groups.
Teachers of intervention classes were provided with training sessions and follow-up coaching on a PGD strategy (greeting the pupils by name, reminding pupils individually and collectively of behaviours for success, having a structured learning activity ready, and positively recognising on-time behaviour). Teachers in the control classes were given the same amount of time to talk with other teachers about their classroom management practice.
Class-wide and individual pupils behaviour was measured using the Behavioral Observation of Students in Schools (BOSS). Over two months, results showed that AET increased for the intervention group and stayed relatively constant for the control group (effect size = +0.93), while disruptive behaviour decreased by a similar amount (ES = -0.87).
The authors caution that the small sample of teachers lessens the generalisability of the study findings, and that the study focused on classes with low baseline levels of academic engagement and classroom management practices, so a similar impact might not be seen in all classrooms.
Source: Positive greetings at the door: Evaluation of a low-cost, high-yield proactive classroom management strategy (October 2018), Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 20(3), 149–159
Prior research has indicated that an individual adolescent’s behaviour is influenced by the behaviour of his or her classmates. But while most studies have focused on negative peer influence, a study published in Journal of Adolescence investigates whether individual anti-social behaviours in adolescents can potentially be reduced by promoting pro-social behaviour at the classroom level.
In order to determine whether classmates’ pro-social behaviour is related to lower anti-social behaviour of pupils, Verena Hofmann and Christoph Michael Müller conducted a longitudinal study among lower secondary school pupils in Switzerland (mean age = 13.8 years). The sample included 55 classrooms in eight schools, and the researchers analysed data collected at the end of Grade 7, Grade 8, and Grade 9 (Years 7–10). Participants completed self-reported assessments on pro-social behaviour, anti-social behaviour, and anti-social attitudes. Classmates’ pro- and anti-social behaviour for each pupil was calculated by averaging all pupils’ scores in a class, excluding the pupils’ own score.
While children generally developed more anti-social behaviour over time, particularly those who had higher initial levels of anti-social behaviour, results indicated that more pro-social behaviour among classmates predicted lower levels of individual anti-social behaviour and anti-social attitudes in the future.
Source: Avoiding antisocial behavior among adolescents: The positive influence of classmates’ prosocial behavior (October 2018), Journal of Adolescence, volume 68