A study published in Educational Psychology examines how different approaches to rewarding pupils affected their spelling scores and prosocial behaviour for different ability levels.
A total of 1,005 pupils, ages 9 and 10, in 28 classes were
recruited from three primary schools in Singapore. Classes were randomly
assigned to one of five reward conditions: competitive, cooperative,
individualistic, cooperative-competitive, and cooperative-individualistic. An
ABABA (A= implementation, B = withdrawal) design was used for each condition,
and pupils’ spelling scores were tracked over a period of 10 weeks. Teachers
were asked to rate pupils’ prosocial behaviour before and after the study.
The results showed that the different conditions did affect pupils’
spelling scores and prosocial behaviour, but that these effects depended on
ability level, such that different conditions were more effective for different
ability levels. Across all five
conditions, only the cooperative-competitive condition resulted in increased
spelling scores and prosocial behaviour across all three ability groups, with
these improvements maintained when the intervention was withdrawn. In the
cooperative-competitive condition, pupils cooperated as a group and the group
with the highest average spelling score (compared to other groups) was
of reward pedagogy on spelling scores and prosocial behaviors in primary school
students in Singapore (October 2019), Journal
of Educational Psychology
A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, looks at what impact an intervention designed to help students with concerns about starting middle school has on their academic achievement, behaviour, and well-being.
Geoffrey Borman and colleagues conducted the study with 1,304 sixth graders (Year 7) at 11 middle schools in a US Midwestern school district. Within each of the 11 schools, students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention group was given reflective writing exercises, two months apart, which were designed to help students reassess any concerns and worries they might have about belonging in school. The control condition exercises asked students to write about neutral middle school experiences that were not related to school belonging.
The researchers collected pre- and post-intervention survey data on students’ reported social and emotional well-being, and official school records of student attendance, disciplinary records, and grades. The results of the study suggested that the intervention reduced behavioural referrals by 34% (effect size = -0.14), decreased absence by 12% (ES = -0.13), and reduced the number of failing grades by 18% (ES = -0.11). Differences across demographic groups were not statistically significant.
Source: Reappraising academic and social adversity improves middle school students’ academic achievement, behavior, and well-being (August 2019) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers at Child Trends, the Claremont Evaluation Center, and LA’s BEST—a large afterschool programme for children aged 5 to 12, in Los Angeles—have developed a white paper for programme leaders, policymakers and other afterschool stakeholders that examines promising practices for promoting positive youth development in afterschool programmes.
The research team conducted a review of the literature (limited to
meta-analyses) on protective and promotive factors that (1) support positive
developmental outcomes among young people, (2) are malleable through
intervention, and (3) have direct relevance to the afterschool context. The
literature review highlighted four categories of actionable, evidence-informed
practices that afterschool programme leadership and staff can implement to
build protective and promotive factors. The four categories are as follows:
organisational practices: practices that afterschool leadership can
purposefully utilise to support the implementation of high-quality programming
in afterschool programmes (eg, leadership engages in thoughtful staff hiring,
onboarding and training practices; leadership fosters collaboration among staff
and across settings).
learning environments: practices fostered by staff that can create
afterschool environments in which young people feel physically and emotionally
safe and supported in various domains of development (eg, staff offer a variety
of activities that align with diverse needs and interests of young people;
staff facilitate small, interactive groups).
and nurturing relationships: practices that enhance staff members’
interactions and communications with, and responses to, young people enrolled
in afterschool programmes (eg, staff model and reinforce positive behaviours,
empower youth to discover and embrace their unique identities, set and enforce
clear rules and expectations).
and explicit focus on youth skill development: staff can focus on this area through
concrete supports that help young people develop malleable individual characteristics
and competencies (eg, supporting the use of effective problem-solving skills,
helping children develop positive interpersonal relationship skills and working
with children to develop their understanding of emotions).
practices for building protective and promotive factors to support positive
youth development in afterschool (November 2018), Claremont Evaluation Center, Claremont Graduate University
A randomised controlled trial published in Frontiers of Psychology, assesses the impact of a kindergarten-based yoga programme on cognitive performance, visual-motor coordination, and inattentive and hyperactive behaviours in five-year-old Tunisian children.
Forty-five children (28 female and 17 male) took part in the
12-week trial, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Fifteen
children performed Hatha yoga twice a week for 30 minutes per session, 15
children performed generic physical education twice a week for 30 minutes per
session, and another 15 children performed no kind of physical activity, and
served as a control group.
Prior to and after the 12 weeks, all children completed a
visual attention test and a visual-motor precision test, and teachers evaluated
their inattention and hyperactivity behaviours. The three interventions were
conducted in parallel and supervised by teachers who were not involved in
rating the children’s behaviour pre- and post-test.
Sana Jarraya and colleagues found that yoga had a positive
impact on children’s inattention and hyperactivity compared to the other two
groups. Yoga also had a positive impact on the completion times for two
visual-motor precision tasks in comparison to children in the physical
education group. The visual attention scores of the yoga group were also higher
in comparison to the control group.
The researchers concluded that yoga could be a cost-effective
exercise for enhancing cognitive and behavioural factors relevant for leaning
and academic achievement among young children.
Source: 12 weeks
of kindergarten-based yoga practice increases visual attention, visual-motor
precision and decreases behavior of inattention and hyperactivity in 5-year-old
children (April 2019), Frontiers in
Increasing a student’s sense of being in control is an important factor in reducing test anxiety, according to a study published in School Psychology Quarterly, which reports the findings of an intervention to reduce test anxiety in secondary school students who are preparing for high-stakes exams.
Fifty-six Year 10 and 11 students from two secondary schools in urban areas of England participated in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups: an early intervention group (n=25), or a wait-list control group (n=31). The intervention comprised six sessions which used both cognitive and behavioural approaches, delivered over six weeks (one session per week).
David Putwain and Marc Pescod measured test anxiety (using the Revised Test Anxiety Scale) and uncertain control (using the Motivation and Engagement Scale) for all participants at three time points: a baseline measurement before either group had received the intervention; after the early intervention group had received the intervention; and after the wait-list control had received the intervention.
The results suggest that after receiving the intervention, students showed a moderate reduction in the worry and tension components of test anxiety and uncertain control.
Source: Is reducing uncertain control the key to successful test anxiety intervention for secondary school students? Findings from a randomized control trial, (June 2018), School Psychology Quarterly.
An article previously published in Frontiers in Psychology by Lisa Wagner and Willibald Ruch reported on two studies conducted with 179 primary pupils from three schools, and 199 secondary pupils from four schools in Switzerland to examine whether character strengths are important to school success for primary and secondary pupils.
The authors measured
character strengths by the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth
(VIA-Youth,) and positive classroom behaviours with the Classroom Behavior
Rating Scale (CBRS), which cover positive achievement-related behaviour and
positive social behaviour. For primary pupils, achievement was obtained by
teacher ratings; for secondary pupils, the schools’ administration offices
provided their grades. The findings showed that:
- Perseverance, prudence,
hope, social intelligence and self-regulation were positively related to
positive classroom behaviour for both primary and secondary pupils.
prudence, hope, love of learning, perspective, zest and gratitude were positively
related to school achievement for both primary and secondary pupils.
- Perseverance, prudence
and hope were associated with both positive classroom behaviour and school
achievement across primary and secondary sectors.
According to the authors, these findings indicate there is a rather distinct set of strengths most relevant in schools. The authors also suggest that further research could explore whether teachers and pupils value these strengths.
Source: Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates
the link between character strengths and school achievement (May 2015), Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6