A recent study published in the Journal of Economics examined the effects of increasing education spending on pupil achievement in more than 3,000 diverse school districts in seven US states: Arkansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Texas and Wisconsin. Money for the increased spending was obtained via increases in property tax, sales tax and income tax – issues that had been placed on ballots and voted into effect.
Data for the study encompassed the years 2000–2015.
Results showed that five to seven years after education spending increased by
$1,000 per pupil, pupils in districts who had formerly been below the average
in spending per pupil had gained +0.15 on standardised testing and showed a 9%
increase in graduation rates. No statistically significant differences were
found for pupils at or above the average spending per pupil prior to the tax
Source: School district operational spending and student outcomes: Evidence from tax elections in seven states (March 2020), Journalof Economics, Volume 183
Research published by the RAND Corporation assesses the impact of the New York City Community Schools initiative (NYC-CS) on outcomes related to attendance, achievement, pupil behaviour, and school climate and culture.
Launched in 2014, the NYC-CS is a strategy to organise resources in schools and provide various services to address the comprehensive needs of pupils, families, and communities through collaboration with community agencies and local government. As part of the study, William R Johnston and colleagues assessed the effects of NYC-CS during the 2017–2018 school year to determine whether pupils were performing better than they would be had their schools not been designated as Community Schools, using average pupil outcomes in each school.
Among the key findings, the results indicate that NYC-CS had positive effects on most of the outcomes examined. In particular, NYC-CS had a positive impact on attendance for pupils in all grades, and these effects appeared to be increasing over time. There was also evidence that NYC-CS led to a reduction in disciplinary incidents for elementary and middle school pupils (Years 1–9) but not for high school students (Years 10–13).
Source: Illustrating the promise of Community Schools: An
assessment of the impact of the New York City Community Schools initiative
(January 2020), Rand Corporation, RR-3245-NYCCEO
A recent study published in Learning and Individual Differences investigates the effects of an intervention in China that enhances teachers’ approaches to conveying high expectations to pupils.
The researchers randomly selected two schools in an urban area of
a city in south China. Four grade 8 (Year 9) English teachers in each school
were randomly chosen and evenly assigned to either the intervention or control
group. While the control group teachers did not receive training, the
intervention group teachers were provided with training workshops focusing on
three strands of high-expectation behaviour, namely, giving pupils challenging
tasks, providing affirmation or suggestions to pupils about their performance,
and enhancing how teachers impart personal regard to pupils.
Teachers were asked to estimate the final exam score they believed each pupil would achieve for the study to categorise pupils into high-, middle- and low-expectation groups. Then, the researchers selected 30 pupils from each class, consisting of 10 each of high-, middle-, and low-expectation pupils, to participate in the study. Among the 240 pupils selected, 229 pupils provided complete data for analysis. Pupils’ self-concepts regarding English and the English test achievement of 113 pupils from the intervention group and 116 pupils from the control group were gathered at the end of Grade 7 (Year 8) and at the middle and the end of Grade 8 (Year 9).
Results showed that:
While the self-concept of pupils from the
control group significantly declined from the end of grade 7 (Year 8) to the
end of grade 8 (Year 9), the self-concept of mid- and low-expectation pupils
from the intervention group significantly increased over the year.
English achievement increased for pupils in
the intervention group, while no significant changes were found among pupils in
the control group.
Low-expectation pupils exhibited the most
gains in both self-concept and achievement.
The authors conclude that teachers giving challenging tasks, detailed feedback, and enhanced personal regard to pupils has a positive impact on improving pupils’ self-belief and academic achievement.
Source: Teacher expectation intervention: Is it effective for all students? (August 2019), Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 74
Maths achievement has been thought to be interrelated with self-concept, interest, and effort. In a recent longitudinal study published in Contemporary Educational Psychology, researchers examined how these factors influence each other over time using a sample of Grade 8 (Year 9) pupils in China.
A total of 702 pupils in
Grade 8 from 14 classes in two public schools in East and South China completed
an assessment of their maths achievement, homework self-concept, interest and
effort at six weeks after the start of the school year and at the end of the
school year. The analysis showed that:
Reciprocal effects were found between maths self-concept
and achievement, effort and achievement, as well as interest and effort.
In particular, the authors found that higher
homework interest led to higher subsequent effort, and higher prior effort
could promote higher homework interest.
had no significant effect on subsequent interest, but prior interest led to
higher self-concept, possibly reflecting the positive homework attitude among
The authors suggest that the reciprocal effects indicated that simultaneously improving homework self-concept, interest, effort and maths achievement is a more effective approach. Specifically, attention should be paid to how homework interest and effort can be promoted more effectively.
Source: Reciprocal effects of
homework self-concept, interest, effort, and math achievement (October 2018), Contemporary Educational Psychology
A report from the Institute of Education Sciences has found that an intensive approach to providing support for using pupil data to inform teaching did not improve pupil achievement, perhaps because the approach did not change teachers’ use of data or their reported classroom practices.
For the study, researchers recruited 102 elementary
(primary) schools from 12 US districts. Schools were randomly assigned to
either a treatment or control group. Treatment schools received funding for a
half-time data coach of their choosing, as well as intensive professional
development for coaches and school leaders on helping teachers use pupil data
to inform their teaching. The control schools received no additional funding
for a data coach or professional development. Impacts on teacher and pupil
outcomes were measured after an 18-month
The results suggest that despite the additional resources,
teachers in the treatment schools did not increase how often they used data or
change their teaching practices in response to that data. Similar percentages
of teachers in treatment and control schools reported data-related activities,
such as analysing data to understand pupil needs. The intervention also had no
effect on pupil achievement. On average, pupils in treatment and control
schools had similar achievement in maths and English.
of support for using student data to inform teachers’ instruction (September
2019), Institute of Education Sciences,
US Department of Education. NCEE 2019-4008
Several studies have related the benefits of future planning to academic achievement, but not many have examined whether academic achievement also influences how pupils plan their future. Zhao and colleagues from Shandong Normal University conducted a longitudinal study to examine the relationship between Chinese middle school pupils’ academic achievement and future planning in educational and occupational domains.
The study included three
assessments six months apart from spring 2014 to spring 2015 in Shandong
Province in eastern China. A total of 775 pupils from sixth to eighth grade (Years
7–9) participated in the first assessment wave. The questionnaire measured pupils’
future explorations, commitments, and affects concerning future education and
occupations. Data on their academic achievement were collected from school
records of their scores in Chinese, English and maths. The relationships were
analysed with data collected at different times.
The analysis showed that:
were reciprocal relationships between academic achievement and pupils’ future
relationships were not seen between academic achievement and future planning in
the occupational domain.
relationship to achievement was more robust than that of exploration to
relationships were the same for both boys and girls.
The authors suggest that
understanding the importance of educational performance led middle school pupils
to invest more effort into improving achievement. The social status brought by
high academic achievement in Chinese society might also trigger positive
affects concerning future planning.
Source: Longitudinal relations between future planning and adolescents’ academic achievement in China (August 2019), Journal of Adolescence, Volume 75