A study published in Educational Psychology examines how different approaches to rewarding pupils affected their spelling scores and prosocial behaviour for different ability levels.
A total of 1,005 pupils, ages 9 and 10, in 28 classes were
recruited from three primary schools in Singapore. Classes were randomly
assigned to one of five reward conditions: competitive, cooperative,
individualistic, cooperative-competitive, and cooperative-individualistic. An
ABABA (A= implementation, B = withdrawal) design was used for each condition,
and pupils’ spelling scores were tracked over a period of 10 weeks. Teachers
were asked to rate pupils’ prosocial behaviour before and after the study.
The results showed that the different conditions did affect pupils’
spelling scores and prosocial behaviour, but that these effects depended on
ability level, such that different conditions were more effective for different
ability levels. Across all five
conditions, only the cooperative-competitive condition resulted in increased
spelling scores and prosocial behaviour across all three ability groups, with
these improvements maintained when the intervention was withdrawn. In the
cooperative-competitive condition, pupils cooperated as a group and the group
with the highest average spelling score (compared to other groups) was
of reward pedagogy on spelling scores and prosocial behaviors in primary school
students in Singapore (October 2019), Journal
of Educational Psychology
Terri Piggott at Loyola University Chicago and Joshua Polanin at American Institutes for Research have published a Methodological guidance paper: High-quality meta-analysis in a systematic review, now appearing on Review of Educational Research’s Online First website.
A meta-analysis synthesises the
quantitative findings of many studies on a given topic. The guidance paper
outlines the characteristics that make a meta-analysis in a systematic review
high quality, discussing unbiased screening and coding procedures, establishing
a protocol for carrying out a review, and then discussing in depth the best
practices for computing effect sizes and reporting the data.
The authors conclude that “the role of researchers using systematic review and meta-analysis is to produce both high-quality analyses and to interpret those results in ways accessible to a wide audience. A high-quality systematic review and meta-analysis is difficult and time-consuming to produce; it is worth the effort to ensure that the results inform future research and policymaking through clear discussion of the results. Researchers should consider preparing different summaries of their review tailored to their audience of researchers, policymakers, and practitioners.”
Source: Methodological guidance
paper: High-quality meta-analysis in a systematic review (September 2019), Review of Educational Research
The Education Endowment Foundation has published an evaluation of Digital Feedback in Primary Maths, a programme that aims to improve primary school teachers’ feedback to pupils.
The intervention uses a tablet application called Explain Everything, diagnostic assessments, and training on effective feedback. The app allows teachers to provide pupils with digitally recorded feedback on a tablet, rather than written feedback. Pupils have the opportunity to review their feedback and develop their work further. By improving teachers’ diagnostic and feedback skills when teaching maths in primary schools, the intervention aims to ultimately improve pupils’ outcomes in maths.
To estimate the impact of Digital Feedback on maths achievement,
the evaluation used a randomised controlled trial involving 2,564 pupils in 108
classes across 34 English primary schools. While the intervention took place in
each school, classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment or control
group, which carried on with business-as-usual teaching.
The results of the evaluation found no evidence that pupils taking part in the programme made more progress in maths, on average (effect size = -0.04), than the control group.
feedback in primary maths (September 2019), Education
A study published in School Psychology investigates the importance of screening children for their readiness for kindergarten (Year 1), and how effective this is at predicting outcomes in first grade (Year 2).
Nineteen kindergarten teachers and 350 children from six
elementary schools in Missouri took part in the study. Teachers completed a
kindergarten academic and behaviour readiness screener at the beginning of the
academic year. Melissa Stormont and colleagues then compared pupil scores from
the screening tool to their performance on a maths and reading achievement test,
and to teacher ratings of their social and emotional skills 18 months later.
The results showed that children with poor academic readiness were more than 9 times more likely to have low reading scores at the end of their first-grade year. Similarly, children who rated poor in behaviour readiness were six times more likely to be rated as having displayed disruptive behaviour and poor social skills by their first-grade teachers. The authors suggest that the screening tool could be used to screen for children low in readiness in order to provide supports and monitoring for early intervention.
school readiness items in a kindergarten sample: Outcomes in first grade
(August 2019), School Psychology
The Institute of Education Sciences at the US Department of Education has released A review of instruments for measuring social and emotional learning skills among secondary school students. The review is designed to help state and local education agencies find assessments that measure secondary students’ social-emotional skills, specifically in the areas of collaboration, perseverance and self-regulated learning, and to help readers interpret the information about reliability and validity for each assessment.
A total of 16 assessments met the following inclusion
criteria for the review: they had to be publicly available, had to have been
administered to secondary students in the US, and had to have undergone
validation study in 1994 or after. Tables in the review detail the format of
instruments by emotional skill, and the reliability and type of validity
information for each assessment. Authors conclude with implications for use of
each type of instrument.
Source: A review
of instruments for measuring social and emotional learning skills among
secondary school students (October 2019), US
Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (REL 2020–010
Self-regulated learning has been regarded as essential for effective learning. Research suggests that self-regulated learning is associated with academic performance, but different self-regulated learning strategies are not equally effective. Addressing the gap that occurred for Chinese pupils because few studies conducted in Asia were included in a previous meta-analysis, a meta-analysis published in Frontiers in Psychology has investigated what the most effective strategies for Chinese pupils were.
Using Chinese academic databases, Junyi Li and colleagues analysed 264 independent samples that involved 23,497 participants from 59 studies. In order to be included in this meta-analysis, studies had to be conducted in real teaching situations; studies based on online learning environments were excluded. Furthermore, participants had to be primary, middle, or secondary school pupils in China. The effect sizes of self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievement were analysed. The results showed that:
- Among the self-regulated learning strategies, self-efficacy (ES = +0.70), self-evaluation (ES = +0.72), and task strategies (ES = +0.60) had relatively large effect sizes on academic achievement.
- On the other hand, the effect sizes of goal orientation (ES = +0.09) and attributions (ES = +0.27) were relatively small.
- The effect sizes of self-regulated learning on science (ES = +0.45) were larger than those on language (ES = +0.29).
authors suggest that task strategies supported learning by reducing a task to
its key parts, that self-evaluation helped learners compare results with their
goals, and that self-efficacy helped learners to use their resources.
Source: What are the effects of self-regulation phases and strategies for Chinese students? A meta-analysis of two decades research of the association between self-regulation and academic performance (December 2018), Frontiers in Psychology