A study published in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport finds that preschool children who performed better on fine and gross motor skill assessments early in the school year were more likely to have better social behaviour and ability to pay attention, follow directions, and stay on task (known as “executive function”) later in the preschool year.
For the study Megan MacDonald and colleagues used a range of assessments to measure the fine and gross motor skills and the executive function and social behaviour of 92 children aged three- to five-years-old. The assessments were conducted in the autumn and again in the spring. Fine motor skills include visual motor integration, which includes activities such as stacking blocks, copying circles on a page, or playing with creative toys such as Lego or crayons. Gross motor skill development could include games and activities that require reciprocal play, and object manipulation skills such as ball games.
The results showed that children’s visual motor integration skills in the autumn of preschool had modest relations with their executive function scores assessed in the spring. Children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the autumn had statistically significant better social behaviour in their preschool classrooms in the spring, including more self-control, more co-operation, and less externalising/ hyperactivity. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness, although additional research is needed to better understand how or why motor skills are linked.
Source: Relations of Preschoolers’ Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior (2016), Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport