This report from Child Trends reviews what is known about the effectiveness of programmes designed to raise achievement by expanding learning time. It evaluates studies of initiatives to extend the school day (ESD), extend the school year (ESY), and expand learning time outside of school hours (ELO).
The report recognises that while many of the studies lack the rigorous experimental testing needed for firm evidence, the available evidence suggests that extending school time can help raise academic achievement. Studies of ELO programmes were found to be more rigorous and to support a positive impact on improving precursors to achievement and learning outcomes, such as educational expectations. In all studies, programme quality and implementation were found to be important.
Source: Expanded time for learning both inside and outside the classroom: A review of the evidence base (2012), Child Trends