An intervention report from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) presents a summary of findings from a systematic review of summer counselling.
In the US, summer counselling interventions are
designed to help ensure that pupils who have finished high school and have an
offer to go on to higher education complete the steps needed to successfully
enrol. These steps could be taking
placement tests, arranging for housing, acquiring medical insurance, obtaining
financial aid, and registering for courses. The interventions are delivered during the months between leaving
high school and enrolment into higher education, and typically involve outreach
by college counsellors or peer mentors via text messaging campaigns, e-mail,
phone, in-person meetings, instant messaging or social media. Summer counselling
is also provided to help pupils overcome unanticipated financial, informational
and socio-emotional barriers that prevent enrolment in to higher education.
The review identified five studies of summer counselling
interventions which met WWC design standards. Together these studies included
more than 13,000 pupils who had recently finished high school in 10 locations
in the US. The results of the systematic review indicated that summer counselling
had potentially positive effects on credit accumulation and persistence, and
mixed effects on access to higher education and enrolment for students who had
recently finished high school.
counseling (March 2018), What Works Clearinghouse
Intervention Report, Institute of Education Sciences
Amanda Inns and colleagues from Johns Hopkins Center for Research and Reform in Education have completed a research review on effective programmes for struggling readers in elementary (primary) schools. A total of 61 studies of 48 programmes met study inclusion standards. 84% were randomised experiments and 16% quasi-experiments. Results showed positive outcomes for one-to-one tutoring and were positive but not as large for one-to-small group tutoring. There were no differences in outcomes between teachers and teaching assistants as tutors. Whole-class approaches (mostly cooperative learning) and whole-school approaches incorporating tutoring obtained outcomes for struggling readers as large as those found for one-to-one tutoring, and benefitted many more pupils. Technology-supported adaptive instruction did not have positive outcomes, however. The article concludes that approaches mixing classroom and school improvements with tutoring for the most at-risk pupils have the greatest potential for the largest numbers of struggling readers.
Source: A synthesis of quantitative research on
programs for struggling readers in elementary schools (April 2019), Johns Hopkins Center for Research and Reform
The MindOut programme is a social-emotional learning programme, developed in Ireland, and based on CASEL’s five core competencies for social-emotional learning: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship management and responsible decision-making. A new article by Katherine Dowling and colleagues in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence reports the results of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of the programme.
The study took place in 34 secondary schools in Ireland (17
intervention, 17 control) with high levels of disadvantage (at least 70% of pupils
classified as educationally disadvantaged). Teachers from the intervention
schools took part in a one-day training session, and then delivered the MindOut
programme over 13 weekly sessions. A total of 675 pupils (ages 15-18) completed
a baseline assessment, with 497 pupils remaining in the study
post-intervention. A range of measures were used to evaluate the impact on social-emotional
skills, mental health and well-being and academic outcomes.
Results showed that for some social and emotional skills,
there were significant improvements for intervention pupils, including the use
of more positive coping strategies and increased social support coping. On
mental health and well-being, the intervention significantly reduced levels of
stress and depressive symptoms. However, there was no effect on academic
outcomes (pupils’ achievement motivation as rated by teachers, and attitudes
Source: A cluster
randomized-controlled trial of the MindOut social and emotional learning program
for disadvantaged post-primary school students (April 2019), Journal of Youth and Adolescence
A new study by Steven Sheldon and Sol Bee Jung from Johns Hopkins School of Education examines Parent Teacher Home Visits (PTHV), a strategy for engaging educators and families as a team to support pupil achievement. The PTHV model has three main components: (1) an initial visit in the summer or autumn in which educators focus on getting to know the pupil and the family, (2) ongoing two-way conversation during the school year, and (3) a second visit in the winter or spring with a focus on how to support the child academically.
Four large urban districts from
across the US participated in the study. From each district, the researchers
requested pupil-level data about demographic characteristics (eg, gender, race)
and pupil outcomes (eg, attendance and standardised test performance).
Additionally, districts were asked to provide data about the implementation of
PTHV in their schools.
Key findings of the study were as
On average, schools that systematically implemented PTHV experienced decreased rates of pupil chronic absenteeism and increased rates of pupil English language and maths proficiency, as measured on state assessments.
Pupils whose families participated in a home visit were less likely to be chronically absent than pupils whose families did not participate.
For pupils, attending a school that was implementing home visits with at least 10% of pupils’ families was associated with a decreased likelihood of being chronically absent.
For pupils, attending a school that was implementing home visits with at least 10% of pupils’ families was associated with an increased likelihood of scoring at or above proficiency on standardised English language assessments.
Source: Student outcomes and parent Year
3 evaluation teacher home visits (November 1018), Johns Hopkins University
A randomised controlled trial published in Frontiers of Psychology, assesses the impact of a kindergarten-based yoga programme on cognitive performance, visual-motor coordination, and inattentive and hyperactive behaviours in five-year-old Tunisian children.
Forty-five children (28 female and 17 male) took part in the
12-week trial, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Fifteen
children performed Hatha yoga twice a week for 30 minutes per session, 15
children performed generic physical education twice a week for 30 minutes per
session, and another 15 children performed no kind of physical activity, and
served as a control group.
Prior to and after the 12 weeks, all children completed a
visual attention test and a visual-motor precision test, and teachers evaluated
their inattention and hyperactivity behaviours. The three interventions were
conducted in parallel and supervised by teachers who were not involved in
rating the children’s behaviour pre- and post-test.
Sana Jarraya and colleagues found that yoga had a positive
impact on children’s inattention and hyperactivity compared to the other two
groups. Yoga also had a positive impact on the completion times for two
visual-motor precision tasks in comparison to children in the physical
education group. The visual attention scores of the yoga group were also higher
in comparison to the control group.
The researchers concluded that yoga could be a cost-effective
exercise for enhancing cognitive and behavioural factors relevant for leaning
and academic achievement among young children.
Source: 12 weeks
of kindergarten-based yoga practice increases visual attention, visual-motor
precision and decreases behavior of inattention and hyperactivity in 5-year-old
children (April 2019), Frontiers in
The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) in the US has released a report examining the effects of attending a charter middle school on students’ later rates of college enrolment and completion. Charter schools are publicly funded, but operate outside the established state school system.
Researchers compared the December 2017 data of students who had entered lotteries to be admitted into 31 charter middle schools nationwide more than ten years before. A total of 1,723 students who had randomly won the lotteries and were admitted into charter middle schools were compared to the 1,150 students who were not admitted at that time.
Three to eight years after expected high school graduation, results showed equal rates of college enrolment (69%) and current enrolment/completion (47%) for both groups. There was also no difference among charter middle attendees and non-attendees in rates of attending a two- or four-year college; if colleges attended were public, private, non-profit, or for profit; and if colleges were highly selective or not. In addition, charter middle school students were as likely to attend dual enrolment high schools (earning college credit while in high school) as their non-charter-selected peers.
These same schools were examined in an earlier study, the Evaluation of Charter School Impacts, where some schools demonstrated improvements in students’ middle school achievement, especially in urban, low socio-economic status areas. These schools were as successful as the others in students’ later college attendance and graduation rates.
Source:Do Charter Middle Schools Improve Students’ College Outcomes? (April 2019) Institute of Education Sciences Evaluation Brief