Glossary

Some keywords may have different meanings. Below you will find details of how we have interpreted some of the keywords that are used on the site.

Achievement gap:
Any achievement gap between groups of pupils. Pupils at risk of falling short of their potential.

At-risk pupils:
Pupils who have a high chance of dropping out of education or developing problems or difficulties.

Assessment:
Research looking at how the success of pupils and schools is measured.

Behaviour:
Studies that examine or attempt to improve behaviour.

Bullying:
Studies that analyse the nature of bullying in school environments.

Childhood development:
The psychological and emotional development of children, normally at younger ages.

Classroom management:
Activities to improve behaviour in the classroom.

Cognitive development:
Child development with priority given to mental information processing, language learning and the ability to think and understand.

Cost-effectiveness:
Studies that consider the cost-effectiveness of an intervention.

CPD:
Studies looking at the impact of continuing professional development (CPD).

Disadvantaged children:
Children who are disadvantaged in some way often, but not always, financial. This keyword includes pupils who were eligible for free school meals in the last 6 years and therefore eligible for the pupil premium.

English as an Additional Language:
Articles that give particular attention to pupils who learn English as, at minimum, a second language.

Ethnic minorities:
Studies that look at the development within particular ethnic groups.

Gender:
Articles that examine differential effects between the sexes, eg, single-sex schools.

Health:
Pupil health and physical well-being.

Higher education:
Studies that focus either entirely or partially on getting students into higher education (university).

Intervention:
The effectiveness of new initiatives introduced into a school or preschool setting.

Literacy:
Articles that focus on improving literacy standards and development.

Longitudinal study:
Research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over a long period of time.

Mathematics:
Articles that discuss the impact of particular approaches in mathematics.

Parental involvement:
Activities where schools aim to involve parents in their child’s education, eg, via joint activities like reading at home.

Parenting:
Covers relations and development between parents and their children.

Performance pay:
The impact of teachers’ salary on improving school performance and pupil attainment.

Policy:
Research that has implications for wider local or national government policy (ie, above school-level).

Poverty: 
Those who have been affected by financial poverty, either families or children.

Preschool:
Studies that focus either entirely or partially on Nursery & Reception. (UK definition)

Primary:
Studies that focus either entirely or partially on primary education. (UK definition ages 4-11)

There are a large number of these, so choose other keywords to return more precise results.

Programme:
Articles that examine the effectiveness of am educational programme.

Randomised controlled trial:
A study in which participants are allocated at random to receive one of several interventions. One of these interventions will be a control, which, for an education study, will often be the normal teaching that a child will receive. A randomised control trial can therefore provide a measure of the effect of a new intervention against normal teaching practice.

Reading:
Articles that focus on improving reading achievement.

Science:
Articles which discuss the development or impact of science on learning.

School leadership:
Studies that look at the effectiveness of different styles of, or approaches to, school leadership.

Secondary:
Studies that focus either entirely or partially on secondary education. (UK definition ages 11-18)

There are a large number of these, so choose other keywords to return more precise results.

Social and emotional learning: 
Approaches aimed at improving the social and emotional well-being of students.

Socio-economic status:
Wealth and its implications for education.

Teaching strategies:
Articles that focus on how teachers teach in the classroom.

Technology:
Articles that look at the use of technology in education.

Well-being:
Studies that look at the overall physical and emotional health of students.

Whole-school reform:
Initiatives that change the whole school rather than a single department or smaller unit.