This Campbell systematic review examines the evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of early childhood learning environments, as measured by the Environment Rating Scale (ERS). The review summarises findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. The studies had to be comparative or correlational and report either an overall quality scale or an environment rating scale.
Overall, the review suggests that higher teacher
qualifications are positively associated with classroom quality in early
childhood education and care (effect size = +0.20). The review also suggests a
positive correlation between teacher qualifications and classroom quality on a
number of subscales, including:
structure – focusing on the schedule, time for free play, group time and
provisions for children with disabilities (ES = +0.22).
– this relates to fine motor, art, music/movement, blocks, sand/water, dramatic
play, nature/science, maths/number, use of digital technologies, and promoting
acceptance of diversity (ES = +0.20).
and reasoning – encouraging children to communicate, use language to
develop reasoning skills, and the informal use of language (ES = +0.20).
The researchers conclude that while there is evidence for
the relationship between teacher qualification and classroom quality as
measured by the ERS, further research is also needed into the specific knowledge
and skills that are learned by teachers with higher qualifications that enable
them to complete their roles effectively. It is important to note also, that
while higher quality in early childhood education and care may lead to improved
outcomes for children, we cannot assume that this is the case.
relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early
childhood education and care environment (January 2017), Campbell Systematic Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 1.
A systematic review of the role of the teacher during collaborative learning in primary and secondary education suggests that several types of teacher guidance can be positive. However, the challenge for the teacher is to support interaction between pupils without taking control of the moments in which opportunities to learn arise for pupils.
The review, carried out by Anouschka van Leeuwen and Jeroen
Janssen, included both qualitative and quantitative studies (n=66) conducted in
primary and secondary schools, and looked at the relationship between the
teacher’s role and the processes and outcomes of collaboration among pupils.
The authors found that feedback, prompting, questioning and
transferring control of the learning process to pupils were all effective
strategies for collaborative learning. The review concludes that when guiding
collaborative learning, teachers should try to not only focus on the content of
the task, but also on how pupils approach the task and the strategies they use
for collaboration, and should let pupils know that help is available without
imposing this help.
systematic review of teacher guidance during collaborative learning in primary
and secondary education (February 2019), Educational
Research Review, volume 27
Lisa Kim and colleagues recently conducted a meta-analysis to try to identify whether personality characteristics are associated with effective teaching. The analysis, which was published in Educational Psychology Review, looked at 25 studies (total number of participants = 6,294) that reported on relationships between five teacher personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability) and two teacher job-related outcomes (teacher effectiveness and burnout).
Overall, the results showed that teacher personality may be
associated with teacher effectiveness and job burnout. For teacher
effectiveness, extraversion was found to have the largest effect size (+0.17),
and agreeableness the lowest (+0.03). The characteristic most associated with
less teacher burnout was emotional stability (effect size =+0.21), and openness
had the smallest effect size (+0.04). However, as the effect sizes for burnout
were very small, the authors suggest that the results should be approached with
The researchers also looked at whether the source of the teacher personality report (ie, self-report vs. other-report) and educational level had any moderating effects on the relationship between personality and job-related outcomes. The findings indicated that other-reports of teacher personality were more strongly associated with effectiveness and burnout than self-reports. There were no differences in the strength of the associations between educational levels.
Source: A meta-analysis of the effects of teacher personality on teacher effectiveness and burnout (January 20019), Educational Psychology Review