The impact of full-day preschool on children’s school readiness skills

An EdPolicy Works working paper reports on a randomised controlled trial of the effects of full- versus half-day preschool on children’s school readiness.

Four-year-old children in a US school district near Denver were randomly assigned to either half-day (n=112) or full-day (n=114) preschool classrooms. To examine the impact on children’s outcomes, Allison Atteberry and colleagues assessed children’s receptive vocabulary skills using a standardised test in which children point to one of four pictures that best corresponds to a spoken word. The researchers also administered a developmental screening tool to assess children’s developmental abilities in relation to school readiness. Both assessments were conducted within the first month of the first term, and again in the last month of the last term.

Their results showed that full-day preschool had positive effects on children’s vocabulary skills (+0.27 standard deviations) by the end of the school year. Positive impacts were also indicated on cognition, literacy, maths and physical skills – with effect sizes from +0.19 to +0.39.

Source: The effects of full-day pre-kindergarten: experimental evidence of impacts on children’s school readiness (July 20189), EdPolicyWorks Working Paper Series No. 64.

Lessons from the scale-up of an early maths programme

Pre-K Mathematics is a supplementary mathematics curriculum for pre-k (Reception) children. It focuses on the pre-k classroom and home learning environments of young children, especially those from families experiencing economic hardship. Activities aim to support mathematical development by providing learning opportunities to increase children’s informal mathematical knowledge.

In an article published in Evaluation Review, Jaime Thomas and colleagues report on a cluster-randomised control trial of the scale-up of Pre-K Mathematics in 140 schools in California (70 intervention schools, 70 control). The post-test measured outcomes on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort Mathematics Assessment (ECLS-B) and the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3) at the end of the pre-k year. Results showed that Pre-K Mathematics had positive and significant effects, with an effect size of +0.30 on the ECLS-B and +0.23 on the TEMA-3.

The authors consider how these results differ from previous, smaller studies of the efficacy and effectiveness of Pre-K Mathematics. They find that effect sizes were usually larger in the earlier studies. As studies became larger, more heterogeneous, and less controlled, they tended to yield smaller results.

Source: The Sequential Scale-Up of an Evidence-Based Intervention: A Case Study (August 2018), Evaluation Review

Effect of preschool home visiting on school readiness

A study published in JAMA Pediatrics examines the sustained effects of a preschool home visiting programme on child outcomes in third grade (Year 4). Karen Bierman and colleagues conducted a randomised controlled trial of the Research-Based and Developmentally Informed Parent home visiting program (REDI-P) on 200 families with preschool children recruited from 24 Head Start centres in Pennsylvania.

Families were assigned to either receive the REDI-P intervention or be sent maths learning games in the post (control group). The intervention focused on improving academic performance and social-emotional adjustment, and reducing children’s problems at home. Families received ten visits from home visitors during preschool and six follow-up visits in kindergarten. Parents received coaching to enhance parent–child relationships and home learning materials to support children’s development and school readiness.

Overall, REDI-P produced sustained benefits four years after the intervention, with children in the REDI-P intervention group needing and using fewer school services than children in the control group. Results showed improvements in academic performance in third grade, measured by direct assessments of child sight-word reading fluency (effect size = +0.28) and teacher-rated academic performance in third grade (effect size= +0.29). The intervention also promoted sustained improvements in children’s social-emotional adjustment, reflected in direct assessments of social understanding (effect size = +0.31). REDI-P also produced reductions in the home problems that parents reported (effect size= −0.28).

Source: Effect of Preschool Home Visiting on School Readiness and Need for Services in Elementary School: A Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(8):e181029.

Reform needed for early years initiative

As part of their Straight Talk on Evidence initiative, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) has released a report that discusses new findings from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of Tennessee’s voluntary pre-kindergarten programme for low-income children.

The Voluntary Pre-K (VPK) initiative provides Tennessee’s four-year-old children—with an emphasis on four year olds who are at-risk—an opportunity to develop school readiness skills (pre-academic and social skills). The study randomly assigned 3,131 eligible children who applied for admission at one of 79 oversubscribed VPK programmes across the state to either a programme group that was offered admission or a control group that was not (but could access other available child and family services in the community). Pupil achievement and other outcomes were measured in third grade (Year 4) using state educational records.

According to the LJAF report, the study found positive short-term effects on achievement (at the end of the pre-k year), but these effects dissipated as children entered elementary (primary) school and turned modestly negative by third grade (Year 4). At the third-grade follow-up, the control group scored significantly higher in maths and science achievement than the pre-k group.

The report offers possible reasons for the adverse effects, and suggests that the programme be reformed by incorporating evidence-based funding criteria aimed at improving its effectiveness over time.

Source: Large randomized trial finds state pre-k program has adverse effects on academic achievement. Reform is needed to increase effectiveness. Straight Talk on Evidence, The Laura and John Arnold Foundation

Self-regulation intervention improves school readiness

Adding a self-regulation intervention to a school readiness programme can improve self-regulation, early academic skills and school readiness in children at higher risk for later school difficulties, according to the results of a study published in Early Childhood Research Quarterly.

Robert J Duncan and colleagues looked at the effect of adding a self-regulation intervention to the Bridge to Kindergarten (B2K) programme – a three-week summer school-readiness programme – in the US state of Oregon. The B2K programme is aimed at children with no prior preschool experience, and therefore considered to be at risk for later school difficulties.

Children from three to five years old were randomly assigned to either a control group (B2K only) or the intervention group (B2K plus intervention). Children in the intervention group received two 20- to 30-minute sessions per week, involving movement and music-based games that encouraged them to practise self-regulation skills.

Results from this randomised controlled trial indicated that children who received the intervention scored higher on measures of self-regulation than children who participated in the B2K programme alone. There were no significant effects on maths or literacy at the end of the programme. However, four months into kindergarten, children from the intervention group showed increased growth in self-regulation, maths and literacy compared to expected development.

Source: Combining a kindergarten readiness summer program with a self-regulation intervention improves school readiness (November 2017) Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 42, 1st Quarter 2018

Preschool language skills a predictor of later reading comprehension

A systematic review published by the Campbell Collaboration summarises the research on the correlation between reading-related preschool predictors, such as code-related skills  and linguistic comprehension, and later reading comprehension skills.

Sixty-four longitudinal studies met the eligibility criteria for the review. These studies spanned 1986 to 2016 and were mostly carried out in the US, Europe and Australia. Overall, the findings of the review found that code-related skills (rhyme awareness, phoneme awareness, letter knowledge and rapid automatised naming) are most important for reading comprehension in beginning readers, but linguistic comprehension (grammar and vocabulary) gradually takes over as children become older. All predictors, except for non-word repetition, were moderately to strongly correlated with later reading comprehension. Non-word repetition had only a weak to moderate correlation to later reading comprehension ability.

These results suggest a need for a broad focus on language skills in preschool-age children in order to establish a strong foundation for reading comprehension.

Source: Preschool predictors of later reading comprehension ability: a systematic review (December 2017), A Campbell Systematic Review 2017:4, Campbell Collaboration