The Institute for Effective Education (IEE) has published a new
report from a project funded by their Innovation Evaluation Grants. The IEE
Innovation evaluations are small-scale and test the kinds of innovations that
schools are interested in.
Thirty-four Year 4 classes took part in the evaluation of Improving times table fluency, which was conducted by Underwood West Academy. A total of 876 children were included in the study.
Five groups of four or five classes were created by matching
the pre-test scores on a 25-item tables test and the percentage of children in
receipt of pupil premium. All groups had similar pre-test scores and similar
percentages of children in receipt of pupil premium. Each class used a different balance of
conceptual and procedural activities during times tables lessons. Conceptual
activities were games that focused on the connections and patterns in tables
facts, while procedural activities were games in which pupils practiced
Pupils had four 15-minute times tables lessons each week, and the
intervention lasted for 12 weeks. Before the intervention started, all
participating pupils carried out a simple times tables test comprising 25
spoken multiplication questions. The same test was repeated as a post-test.
The results of the trial showed that no one balance of practice
activities was more effective than another. The report concludes that times
tables may be best taught by using a balanced approach – teaching both the
concepts behind them and practising them in a range of ways with low-stakes
Increasing times table fluency (May 2019), Institute
for Effective Education
The results of a randomised controlled trial, published in Journal of Educational Psychology, suggest that a greater emphasis on interleaved practice may dramatically improve maths test scores for grade 7 (Year 8) pupils. Whereas most mathematics worksheets consist of a block of problems devoted to the same skill or concept, an interleaved worksheet is arranged so that no two consecutive problems require the same strategy.
and colleagues conducted the study with 54 classes in a large school district
in Florida during the 2017–2018 school year. Over a period of four months, the
classes periodically completed either interleaved or blocked worksheets, and
then both groups completed an interleaved review worksheet. All pupils
completed the same problems. One month later, pupils took an unannounced test
which was set by the researchers. Pupils who had completed the interleaved
assignments performed much better on the unannounced test than those in the
blocked assignment group (effect size = +0.83).
researchers suggest that the large effect sizes observed in the study for
interleaved maths practice may be due to the learning strategies it involves,
which force the pupil to choose an appropriate strategy for each problem on the
basis of the problem itself. They also identified some limitations of the study
– particularly that the interleaving pupils took longer to complete their
worksheets so effectively spent more time on each topic.
Source: A randomized controlled trial of interleaved
mathematics practice (May 2019). Journal of
While mathematics is often considered a hard subject, not all difficulties with the subject result from cognitive difficulties. Many children and adults experience feelings of anxiety, apprehension, tension or discomfort when confronted by a maths problem. Research conducted by the Centre for Neuroscience in Education at the University of Cambridge examined the maths performance of more than 2,700 primary and secondary pupils in the UK and Italy who were screened for maths anxiety and general anxiety. Researchers then worked one-to-one with the children in order to gain deeper understanding of their cognitive abilities and feelings towards maths using a series of cognitive tasks, questionnaires, and interviews.
Emma Carey and colleagues found that a general feeling that
maths was more difficult than other subjects often contributed to feelings of
anxiety about the subject, and that teachers and parents may inadvertently play
a role. Girls in both primary and secondary school were found to have higher
levels of both maths anxiety and general anxiety.
Pupils indicated poor test results, or negative comparisons
to peers or siblings, as reasons for feeling anxious. Secondary school pupils
also indicated that the transition from primary to secondary school was a cause
of maths anxiety, as the work seemed harder and there was greater pressure on
tests and increased homework.
The report sets out a series of recommendations, including:
Teachers should be aware that maths anxiety can
affect pupils’ maths performance.
Teachers and parents need to be aware that their
own maths anxiety might influence pupils’ math anxiety.
Teachers and parents also need to be aware that gendered
stereotypes about maths ability might contribute to the gender gap in maths
Reducing classroom pressure and using methods
like free writing about emotions before a test could help to alleviate maths
Source: Understanding mathematics
anxiety: Investigating the experiences of UK primary and secondary school
students (March 2019), Centre for
Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge
A new resource from Deans for Impact summarises current cognitive-science research related to how young children – from birth to age eight – develop skills across three domains: agency, literacy and numeracy.
It aims to
give guidance to anyone working in education who is interested in understanding
the science of how young children develop control of their own behaviour and
intentions, how they learn to read and write, and how they develop the ability
to think mathematically.
domain, the report identifies key questions about learning and provides a short
list of the principles from learning science that inform the answers to these
questions. The resource then connects these principles to a set of practical
implications for specific teaching strategies. The original research is clearly
referenced for anyone wishing to find out more.
Source: The science of early learning: How do young
children develop agency, literacy, and numeracy? (2019), Deans for Impact.
A randomised controlled trial of two new maths apps to support young children’s early maths development has shown positive results. The apps, “Maths 3–5” and “Maths 4–6”, are based on core mathematical concepts in number and shape, and space and measure, which are covered in the Early Years Foundation Stage, and also start to introduce children to topics covered in Key Stage 1.
Laura Outhwaite and colleagues conducted the randomised controlled trial of the apps with 389 children aged 4–5 years from 12 schools in the UK. The trial took place over 12 weeks in the last weeks of their Reception school year before pupils moved to Key Stage 1. Pupils were randomised to either use the apps in addition to standard maths teaching activities (treatment); use the apps instead of a regular small group-based maths activity (time-equivalent treatment), or continue with usual maths teaching activities (control).
The results showed that pupils in the treatment group made more progress on standardised assessments of maths performance over 12 weeks than pupils in the control group (effect size = +0.31). Similarly, pupils in the time-equivalent treatment made more progress in maths performance than pupils in the control group (effect size = +0.21). There was no significant difference in maths performance between pupils in the two treatment groups (effect size = +0.08).
A randomised controlled trial of apps developed for primary children in Malawi, which we covered in a previous issue of Best Evidence in Brief, also showed positive results for maths achievement.
Source: Raising early achievement in math with interactive apps: A randomized control trial (February 2019), Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(2)
Many factors influence a child’s responsiveness to an academic programme. The University of Oregon’s Ben Clark and colleagues recently evaluated the effects of baseline maths skills and their interaction with group size on the maths achievement of at-risk kindergartners (Year 1) in the ROOTs programme.
The ROOTS programme is a 50-lesson Tier-2 maths programme that addresses whole-number concepts and skills as a supplement to maths teaching. In this study, the researchers examined data from a randomised evaluation (Clark et al., 2017) studying kindergartners from 69 classrooms during two separate school years. Subjects were tested using five measures of whole-number sense each autumn, and those whose scores fell below a determined threshold were assigned to either a 2:1 ROOTS group (n=120), a 5:1 ROOTS group (n=295), or to the no-intervention control group (n=177). ROOTS pupils received 20-minute small-group sessions five times a week during ten weeks spanning late fall to early spring. Post-tests in the spring of kindergarten (Year 1) and then six months into first grade (Year 2) found that the pupils with lower initial maths skills demonstrated greater gains than others on two of the six outcome measures of the TEMA-3, although there was no correlation with intervention group size.
Source: Exploring the relationship between initial mathematics skill
and a kindergarten mathematics intervention (January 2019) Exceptional Children, 85(2)