Mindfulness-based interventions in schools

This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) implemented in school settings on cognition, behaviour, socio-emotional outcomes and academic achievement. MBIs are interventions that use a mindfulness component, broadly defined as “paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, non-judgmentally”, and is often combined with yoga, cognitive-behavioural strategies, or relaxation-skills training.

A total of 61 studies are included in the review, but only the 35 randomised or quasi-experimental studies are used in the meta-analysis, with a total of 6,207 pupil participants. Most of the studies were carried out in schools in the US (74%), with some in Asia (5%), Europe (16%) and Canada (5%). The interventions ranged in duration (4–28 weeks), number of sessions (6–125 sessions) and frequency of meetings (once every two weeks to five times a week).

The findings show that MBIs in schools have a small positive effect on cognitive outcomes and socio-emotional outcomes, but do not improve behaviour or academic achievement. There was little heterogeneity for all outcomes, apart from behavioural outcomes, suggesting that the interventions produced similar results across studies on cognitive, socio-emotional and academic outcomes, despite the interventions being quite diverse. Overall, Brandy Maynard and colleagues find a lack of support at post-test to indicate that the positive effects on cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes then translate into positive outcomes on behaviour and academic achievement.

Source: Mindfulness-based interventions for improving cognition, academic achievement, behavior, and socioemotional functioning of primary and secondary school students (March 2017), A Campbell Systematic Review 2017:5

The positive impact of childcare starts early

A new study investigates the impact of childcare from birth to 51 months on children’s cognitive development at 51 months.

Published in the International Journal of Behavioral Development, it used data from the Families, Children and Child Care study, which recorded the details of 978 children in London and Oxfordshire. Information on family demographics, the home environment, and duration and quality of childcare were captured at various time points. Cognitive ability at 51 months was measured using the British Ability Scales, which measures verbal ability (eg, verbal comprehension and naming vocabulary) and non-verbal ability (eg, pattern construction and picture similarities).

Group-based care was beneficial for cognitive development and non-verbal ability (but not verbal ability) before school entry. Home-based care, whether by paid or unpaid carers, relatives or non-relatives, had relatively little impact. The quality of group-based care had only marginal positive effects, although the sample size for this part of the study was small.

Unusually, the participants in the study included a substantial number of advantaged families. Professional families and mothers with university degrees were both associated with higher cognitive scores, but even taking those factors into account there was still a small but significant added value of group-based childcare.

Source: Amount and Timing of Group-Based Childcare from Birth and Cognitive Development at 51 Months (2016), International Journal of Behavioral Development.