Interventions can reduce school exclusion but the effect is temporary

This Campbell Systematic Review examined the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension, involves the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present at school. In some extreme cases, the pupil is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion).

The review summarised 37 studies, reporting 38 interventions’ effect sizes. Most studies were from the US (n=33) and the UK (n=3). All of them were randomised controlled trials.

The evidence suggested that school-based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion during the first six months after the intervention (effect size =+0.30), but that this effect is not sustained. Some specific types of interventions showed more promising results than others. Of the nine different types of school-based interventions included in the review, four types (enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring and skills training for teachers) showed positive results in reducing exclusion. However, based on the number of studies involved, the researchers suggest that results must be treated with caution.

Source: School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion: a systematic review (January 2018), A Campbell Systematic Review 2018:1, Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Coordinating Group

Preschool language skills a predictor of later reading comprehension

A systematic review published by the Campbell Collaboration summarises the research on the correlation between reading-related preschool predictors, such as code-related skills  and linguistic comprehension, and later reading comprehension skills.

Sixty-four longitudinal studies met the eligibility criteria for the review. These studies spanned 1986 to 2016 and were mostly carried out in the US, Europe and Australia. Overall, the findings of the review found that code-related skills (rhyme awareness, phoneme awareness, letter knowledge and rapid automatised naming) are most important for reading comprehension in beginning readers, but linguistic comprehension (grammar and vocabulary) gradually takes over as children become older. All predictors, except for non-word repetition, were moderately to strongly correlated with later reading comprehension. Non-word repetition had only a weak to moderate correlation to later reading comprehension ability.

These results suggest a need for a broad focus on language skills in preschool-age children in order to establish a strong foundation for reading comprehension.

Source: Preschool predictors of later reading comprehension ability: a systematic review (December 2017), A Campbell Systematic Review 2017:4, Campbell Collaboration

Are classroom management programmes effective?

Ada Chukwudozie and Howard White at The Campbell Collaboration have prepared a new summary of a previously published systematic review of teacher classroom management practices.

The review examined the effects of teacher classroom management programmes on disruptive or aggressive pupil behaviour and sought to identify which management components were most effective. Examples of the classroom management programmes included COMP (Classroom Organization and Management Program) and the Good Behaviour Game.

A total of 12 studies were included in the review. These studies reported on public school general education classes with pupils from Kindergarten to  12th grade (Years 1 to 13). Effectiveness studies had to use a valid experimental or quasi-experimental design with control groups to be included in the review.

According to the summary, multi-component classroom management programmes had a significant positive effect in decreasing aggressive or problematic behaviour in the classroom. Results showed that pupils in the treatment classrooms in all 12 studies reviewed showed less disruptive or problematic behaviors when compared to pupils in control classrooms without the intervention.

The summary notes that it was not possible to make any conclusions regarding which components of the management programmes were most effective due to small sample size and lack of information reported in the studies reviewed.

Source: Effective multi-component classroom management programmes seem to improve student behavior in the classroom but further research is needed (2017) The Campbell Collaboration.

New evidence on early childhood settings and children’s outcomes

A new Campbell Collaboration systematic review by Matthew Manning and colleagues examines the evidence on the relationship between teacher qualifications and the quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC), and finds there is a positive association.

The review summarises findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. Of those samples, 58 assessed the overall quality of ECEC as an outcome. The relationship between teacher qualifications and overall ECEC quality demonstrated a positive correlation (r = 0.198).

Meanwhile, research funded by the Nuffield Foundation and published as a Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper, looks at whether staff qualifications and Ofsted ratings of nursery schools impact on how well children do at school.

For this report, Jo Blanden and colleagues matched data on children’s outcomes at the end of Reception with information on nursery schools attended in the year before starting school for 1.6 million children born between September 2003 and August 2006. They found that children who attend a nursery school rated outstanding, or one employing one or more staff members who are graduates, do better at school, but the effects are very small. Having an employee at the nursery school who is a graduate, specifically a qualified teacher, raises children’s scores at age 5 and 7 by two percent of a standard deviation. Attending a nursery school rated outstanding is associated with a better performance in the Early Years Foundation Stage at age 5 of about four percent of a standard deviation.

Source: The relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood care and learning environment (January 2017), Campbell Systematic Reviews 2017:1.

Quality in early years settings and children’s school achievement (February 2017), The Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper No 1468.

The effects of school-based decision-making

The Campbell Collaboration has released a research review by Roy Carr-Hill and colleagues on the effects of school-based decision-making on educational outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

The report notes that “Many governments have addressed the low quality of education by devolving decision-making authority to schools. It is assumed that locating decision-making authority within schools will increase accountability, efficiency, and responsiveness to local needs”. To evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of this type of reform, the authors reviewed 26 studies on the impact of school-based decision-making on educational outcomes, and nine studies on barriers to, and enablers of, school-based decision-making.

Overall, findings showed that decentralising decision-making to schools has mainly small to moderate positive effects in reducing repetition, dropouts, and increasing test scores. These effects were restricted to middle-income countries, with fewer and smaller positive effects found in low-income countries or in disadvantaged communities.

The authors identify several implications for policy and practice, including:

  • School-based decision-making reforms in highly disadvantaged communities are less likely to be successful. Parental participation seems to be the key to the success of such reforms.
  • The involvement of school management committees in personnel decisions appears to play a role in improving proximal outcomes, such as teacher attendance, but success is also likely to be linked to the overall teacher job market and the prospects of long-term employment.

 Source:  The effects of school-based decision making on educational outcomes in low- and middle-income contexts (November 2016), A Campbell Systematic Review 2016:9, The Campbell Collaboration

The effects of parenting programmes

A new policy brief from The Campbell Collaboration summarises evidence from six Campbell systematic reviews of parenting programmes.

These programmes are designed to enhance parents’ knowledge, skills, and understanding, and to improve both child and parent behavioural and psychological outcomes. Programmes are typically offered to parents over the course of 8 to 12 weeks, for one or two hours each week. The programmes can be delivered on a one-to-one basis or to groups, and be provided in a range of settings, including hospitals, social work clinics, schools, and churches.

The six systematic reviews that have been published by The Campbell Collaboration have evaluated the effectiveness of a range of parenting programmes, including those aimed at addressing early onset conduct disorder and improving outcomes for children with ADHD. The reviews provide unequivocal evidence that parenting programmes are effective in improving aspects of parents’ psychosocial functioning (eg, depression, anxiety, confidence, and satisfaction with the partner relationship) in the short-term. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions have also been found to be effective at improving child conduct problems, parental mental health, and parenting skills in the short term for parents of children aged 3-12. However, the evidence of effectiveness for parents of younger children is less comprehensive.

Source: Effects of Parenting Programmes: A Review of Six Campbell Systematic Reviews (2016), The Campbell Collaboration.