A new study by Steven Sheldon and Sol Bee Jung from Johns Hopkins School of Education examines Parent Teacher Home Visits (PTHV), a strategy for engaging educators and families as a team to support pupil achievement. The PTHV model has three main components: (1) an initial visit in the summer or autumn in which educators focus on getting to know the pupil and the family, (2) ongoing two-way conversation during the school year, and (3) a second visit in the winter or spring with a focus on how to support the child academically.
Four large urban districts from
across the US participated in the study. From each district, the researchers
requested pupil-level data about demographic characteristics (eg, gender, race)
and pupil outcomes (eg, attendance and standardised test performance).
Additionally, districts were asked to provide data about the implementation of
PTHV in their schools.
Key findings of the study were as
On average, schools that systematically implemented PTHV experienced decreased rates of pupil chronic absenteeism and increased rates of pupil English language and maths proficiency, as measured on state assessments.
Pupils whose families participated in a home visit were less likely to be chronically absent than pupils whose families did not participate.
For pupils, attending a school that was implementing home visits with at least 10% of pupils’ families was associated with a decreased likelihood of being chronically absent.
For pupils, attending a school that was implementing home visits with at least 10% of pupils’ families was associated with an increased likelihood of scoring at or above proficiency on standardised English language assessments.
Source: Student outcomes and parent Year
3 evaluation teacher home visits (November 1018), Johns Hopkins University
A randomised controlled trial published in Frontiers of Psychology, assesses the impact of a kindergarten-based yoga programme on cognitive performance, visual-motor coordination, and inattentive and hyperactive behaviours in five-year-old Tunisian children.
Forty-five children (28 female and 17 male) took part in the
12-week trial, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Fifteen
children performed Hatha yoga twice a week for 30 minutes per session, 15
children performed generic physical education twice a week for 30 minutes per
session, and another 15 children performed no kind of physical activity, and
served as a control group.
Prior to and after the 12 weeks, all children completed a
visual attention test and a visual-motor precision test, and teachers evaluated
their inattention and hyperactivity behaviours. The three interventions were
conducted in parallel and supervised by teachers who were not involved in
rating the children’s behaviour pre- and post-test.
Sana Jarraya and colleagues found that yoga had a positive
impact on children’s inattention and hyperactivity compared to the other two
groups. Yoga also had a positive impact on the completion times for two
visual-motor precision tasks in comparison to children in the physical
education group. The visual attention scores of the yoga group were also higher
in comparison to the control group.
The researchers concluded that yoga could be a cost-effective
exercise for enhancing cognitive and behavioural factors relevant for leaning
and academic achievement among young children.
Source: 12 weeks
of kindergarten-based yoga practice increases visual attention, visual-motor
precision and decreases behavior of inattention and hyperactivity in 5-year-old
children (April 2019), Frontiers in
While mathematics is often considered a hard subject, not all difficulties with the subject result from cognitive difficulties. Many children and adults experience feelings of anxiety, apprehension, tension or discomfort when confronted by a maths problem. Research conducted by the Centre for Neuroscience in Education at the University of Cambridge examined the maths performance of more than 2,700 primary and secondary pupils in the UK and Italy who were screened for maths anxiety and general anxiety. Researchers then worked one-to-one with the children in order to gain deeper understanding of their cognitive abilities and feelings towards maths using a series of cognitive tasks, questionnaires, and interviews.
Emma Carey and colleagues found that a general feeling that
maths was more difficult than other subjects often contributed to feelings of
anxiety about the subject, and that teachers and parents may inadvertently play
a role. Girls in both primary and secondary school were found to have higher
levels of both maths anxiety and general anxiety.
Pupils indicated poor test results, or negative comparisons
to peers or siblings, as reasons for feeling anxious. Secondary school pupils
also indicated that the transition from primary to secondary school was a cause
of maths anxiety, as the work seemed harder and there was greater pressure on
tests and increased homework.
The report sets out a series of recommendations, including:
Teachers should be aware that maths anxiety can
affect pupils’ maths performance.
Teachers and parents need to be aware that their
own maths anxiety might influence pupils’ math anxiety.
Teachers and parents also need to be aware that gendered
stereotypes about maths ability might contribute to the gender gap in maths
Reducing classroom pressure and using methods
like free writing about emotions before a test could help to alleviate maths
Source: Understanding mathematics
anxiety: Investigating the experiences of UK primary and secondary school
students (March 2019), Centre for
Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge
Engaging parents in their children’s education, both at home and at school, can be an effective and low-cost way of improving learning outcomes for pupils. A study published in European Economic Review examines whether academic achievement can be improved by increasing parental involvement through scheduled parent-teacher meetings.
Asad Islam conducted the randomised controlled trial in
schools in two southern districts of Bangladesh. Seventy-six primary schools
were chosen randomly from more than 200 in these regions, with 40 schools
randomly allocated to the intervention group and 36 to the control group. Pupils
in these schools all came from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and a quarter of
parents did not complete primary school.
The intervention involved monthly face-to-face meetings
between parents and teachers over a period of two academic years. At each
15-minute meeting, teachers discussed with parents their child’s academic
progress and provided them with a report card for their child. Pupil achievement
outcomes were measured using standardised test scores.
Overall, test scores of pupils in the intervention schools
increased by 0.26 standard deviations (SD) in the first year, and 0.38 SD by the
end of the second year of the intervention. The study also found that pupils in
the intervention schools had made improvements in their reading and writing
abilities and general knowledge. Parents who attended the parent-teacher
meetings reported that they felt encouraged to spend more time at home helping
children study or do homework. Both parents and teachers also reported improved
attitudes in the behaviour and confidence of their children.
meetings and student outcomes: Evidence from a developing country (January
2019), European Economic Review, Volume
An article previously published in Frontiers in Psychology by Lisa Wagner and Willibald Ruch reported on two studies conducted with 179 primary pupils from three schools, and 199 secondary pupils from four schools in Switzerland to examine whether character strengths are important to school success for primary and secondary pupils.
The authors measured
character strengths by the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth
(VIA-Youth,) and positive classroom behaviours with the Classroom Behavior
Rating Scale (CBRS), which cover positive achievement-related behaviour and
positive social behaviour. For primary pupils, achievement was obtained by
teacher ratings; for secondary pupils, the schools’ administration offices
provided their grades. The findings showed that:
hope, social intelligence and self-regulation were positively related to
positive classroom behaviour for both primary and secondary pupils.
prudence, hope, love of learning, perspective, zest and gratitude were positively
related to school achievement for both primary and secondary pupils.
and hope were associated with both positive classroom behaviour and school
achievement across primary and secondary sectors.
According to the authors, these findings indicate there is a rather distinct set of strengths most relevant in schools. The authors also suggest that further research could explore whether teachers and pupils value these strengths.
Source: Good character at school: positive classroom behavior mediates
the link between character strengths and school achievement (May 2015), Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 6
Johns Hopkins University’s Daniel Shackelford has conducted the first quantitative study examining the effects of participation in an extracurricular debate club during pre-adolescence on pupils’ later academic and engagement outcomes, including entry to selective-entrance high schools.
examined a 10-year sample of 2,263 4th to 8th grade pupils (Year 5 to Year 9)
participating in Baltimore City’s Baltimore Urban Debate League (BUDL) between
the 2004 to 2013 school years, comparing their standardised maths and reading
scores, attendance, and entry to selective-entrance high schools to 81,906
peers who did not participate in BUDL. Ninety-one percent of both groups were
African American, and 96% of both groups received free and reduced-price lunch.
It is of note that these two groups were not matched at baseline: pupils who became debaters differed from controls prior to their participation in BUDL, with higher standardised test scores and attendance, so no true causal conclusion can be drawn from comparing groups. Yet among the debate pupils themselves, results showed that pre-adolescent debate participation yielded more than a 6% increase in reading scores and a 4% increase in maths scores on standardised testing. While debate inherently involves reading and might be accountable for increased reading achievement, Dr Shackelford observes that debaters were 10% more likely not to be chronically absent than non-debaters, and this increased engagement in school may have yielded the improvements in maths scores. BUDL pupils were also more likely to attend a selective high school (+0.12) or selective career tech high school (+0.01) than to attend a traditional high school.
BUDL effect: Examining academic achievement and engagement outcomes of preadolescent
Baltimore Urban Debate League participants (February 2019), Educational